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无法获取指向控制台的文件描述符 (couldn't get a file descriptor referring to the console)


背景

最近收拾东西,从一堆杂物里翻出来尘封四年多的树莓派 3B 主机来,打扫打扫灰尘,接上电源,居然还能通过之前设置好的 VNC 连上。欣慰之余,开始 clone 我的 git 项目,为它们拓展一个新的平台。在执行 cnblogs 项目 (参考《博客园排名预测 》) 对应的绘图命令时,趋势图、预测图是生成了,但没有自动打开图片,这个问题经过一番探索居然解决了,这篇文章就来分享一下解决问题的过程。

问题

第一眼看到的错误信息:

$ open ./fit.png 无法获取指向控制台的文件描述符 

这里我设置了控制台 locale 为中文,如果是英文的话,得到下面的结果:

Couldn't get a file descriptor referring to the console 

果断在网上搜索了这个错误,得到的结果比较少,根据解决方案主要分以下几种:

这里我并没有调用 setfont 或 loadkeys 命令,直接执行它俩也会报一样的错误,难道需要在登录脚本里执行一下?抱着试试看的态度,我在 ~/.bashrc 中加了这么一句:

loadkeys 

重启树莓派,这回用 ssh 登录,结果一上来就报错:

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software; the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.  Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Last login: Sun Aug  8 23:07:46 2021 from 192.168.1.118 无法获取指向控制台的文件描述符 

看来网上的说法和我遇到的不一样,只能自己探索了。好在遇事不决、量子力学,哦 no,strace,看看底层调用哪个环节出问题了:

$ strace open ./fit.png execve("/bin/open", ["open", "fit.png"], [/* 36 vars */]) = 0 brk(0)                                  = 0x822000 uname({sys="Linux", node="raspberrypi", ...}) = 0 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) mmap2(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f91000 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = 0 open("/etc/ld.so.preload", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=42, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 42, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76f90000 close(3)                                = 0 open("/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libarmmem.so", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 read(3, "177ELF1113(1h5004"..., 512) = 512 lseek(3, 17960, SEEK_SET)               = 17960 read(3, ""..., 960) = 960 lseek(3, 17696, SEEK_SET)               = 17696 read(3, "A.aeabi1$05666101t1n3f122424"..., 47) = 47 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=18920, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 83236, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x76f4f000 mprotect(0x76f54000, 61440, PROT_NONE)  = 0 mmap2(0x76f63000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x4000) = 0x76f63000 mprotect(0x7eb5f000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE|PROT_EXEC|PROT_GROWSDOWN) = 0 close(3)                                = 0 munmap(0x76f90000, 42)                  = 0 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=76981, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 76981, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76f3c000 close(3)                                = 0 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 read(3, "177ELF1113(1L2041004"..., 512) = 512 lseek(3, 1239936, SEEK_SET)             = 1239936 read(3, ""..., 2840) = 2840 lseek(3, 1236500, SEEK_SET)             = 1236500 read(3, "A.aeabi1$05666101t1n222423124"..., 47) = 47 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1242776, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f90000 mmap2(NULL, 1312152, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x76dfb000 mprotect(0x76f26000, 65536, PROT_NONE)  = 0 mmap2(0x76f36000, 12288, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x12b000) = 0x76f36000 mmap2(0x76f39000, 9624, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f39000 close(3)                                = 0 mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f8f000 set_tls(0x76f8f4c0, 0x76f8fba8, 0x76f94050, 0x76f8f4c0, 0x76f94050) = 0 mprotect(0x76f36000, 8192, PROT_READ)   = 0 mprotect(0x76f4f000, 20480, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0 mprotect(0x76f4f000, 20480, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0 cacheflush(0x76f4f000, 0x76f54000, 0, 0x15, 0x7eb5f0b0) = 0 mprotect(0x22000, 4096, PROT_READ)      = 0 mprotect(0x76f93000, 4096, PROT_READ)   = 0 munmap(0x76f3c000, 76981)               = 0 brk(0)                                  = 0x822000 brk(0x843000)                           = 0x843000 open("/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=4395328, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 2097152, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76bfb000 mmap2(NULL, 1720320, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0x28e000) = 0x76a57000 close(3)                                = 0 fstat64(0, {st_mode=S_IFCHR|0620, st_rdev=makedev(136, 1), ...}) = 0 fstat64(1, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=3753, ...}) = 0 fstat64(2, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=3811, ...}) = 0 open("/proc/self/fd/0", O_RDWR)         = 3 ioctl(3, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 opost isig icanon echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(3, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7eb5f14b)         = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) close(3)                                = 0 open("/dev/tty", O_RDWR)                = 3 ioctl(3, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 opost isig icanon echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(3, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7eb5f14b)         = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) close(3)                                = 0 open("/dev/tty0", O_RDWR)               = -1 EACCES (Permission denied) open("/dev/tty0", O_WRONLY)             = -1 EACCES (Permission denied) open("/dev/tty0", O_RDONLY)             = -1 EACCES (Permission denied) open("/dev/vc/0", O_RDWR)               = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/dev/vc/0", O_WRONLY)             = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/dev/vc/0", O_RDONLY)             = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/dev/systty", O_RDWR)             = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/dev/systty", O_WRONLY)           = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/dev/systty", O_RDONLY)           = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/dev/console", O_RDWR)            = -1 EACCES (Permission denied) open("/dev/console", O_WRONLY)          = -1 EACCES (Permission denied) open("/dev/console", O_RDONLY)          = -1 EACCES (Permission denied) ioctl(0, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 opost isig icanon echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(0, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7eb5f14b)         = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) ioctl(1, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, 0x7eb5f0cc) = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) ioctl(2, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, 0x7eb5f0cc) = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) open("/usr/share/locale/locale.alias", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fcntl64(3, F_GETFD)                     = 0x1 (flags FD_CLOEXEC) fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=2492, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f8e000 read(3, "# Locale name alias data base.n#"..., 4096) = 2492 read(3, "", 4096)                       = 0 close(3)                                = 0 munmap(0x76f8e000, 4096)                = 0 open("/usr/share/locale/zh_CN.UTF-8/LC_MESSAGES/kbd.mo", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/usr/share/locale/zh_CN.utf8/LC_MESSAGES/kbd.mo", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/usr/share/locale/zh_CN/LC_MESSAGES/kbd.mo", O_RDONLY) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=30170, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 30170, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76f87000 close(3)                                = 0 open("/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/gconv/gconv-modules.cache", O_RDONLY) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=26262, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 26262, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED, 3, 0) = 0x76f48000 close(3)                                = 0 write(2, "346227240346263225350216267345217226346214207345220221346216247345210266345217260347232204346226"..., 46无法获取指向控制台的文件描述符 ) = 46 exit_group(1)                           = ? +++ exited with 1 +++ 

brk (line 53) 之前的输出都不用看,属于程序初始化的逻辑;值得注意的报错点在 line 70 与 79:

open("/dev/console", O_RDWR)            = -1 EACCES (Permission denied) 

这两个地方错误相似,都是打开 tty 设备时没有权限,而且是试了三种权限都失败了,分别为:读写 (O_RDWR)、只写 (O_WRONLY)、只读 (O_RDONLY),看来为了打开这个设备,open 也是尽力了呀~

为什么好端端的会没有权限呢?让我们看下 ls 的输出:

$ ls -lh /dev/console crw------- 1 root root 5, 1 Aug  8 22:37 /dev/console 

 这个设备是 root 创建、root 拥有、且没有给其它用户开放任何权限,难怪会加载失败。

解决方案

既然根因是权限导致的,那就从权限入手来解决,之前系统总结过 linux 文件权限的规则 (参考 《[apue] linux 文件访问权限那些事儿 》),要将 root 创建的文件分享给当前用户访问,也不是什么难事。

console group

第一个冒出来的想法,就是创建一个新的用户组 (例如 console),把 root 和当前用户 pi 都加入到这个组中,然后指定设备的所有组为 console,并开放适当的组权限,这样就可以实现共享啦。有的人可能觉得麻烦,直接把出错的 tty 设备 chown 到当前用户不就行了?对于普通的数据文件,我也经常这样搞,但是对于公共的、系统相关的文件,我劝大家还是不要这么自信,否则可能搞到开不了机 (个人惨痛遭遇就不展开了)。另外这样做还有个额外的好处,就是当新用户遇到了同样问题时,只要把他加入这个组 (console) 就搞定了!下面是对应的脚本:

groups sudo groupadd console usermod -a -G console pi groups su groups usermod -a -G console root groups chgrp console /dev/console chmod g+rw /dev/console exit

夹在 usermod 前后的 groups 命令用来显示当前用户所属的用户组,用以验证添加附加组是否成功 (实际上无效,见后面说明)。注意对 root 帐户的操作需要使用 su 切换,切换后顺便对它拥有的文件 (/dev/console) 进行操作,以避免权限上的错误,最后执行完成后 exit 退回到当前用户。这里有两个点需要注意:

  • usermod -a 选项必需和 -G 配合使用,之前我单独使用 -a 时 usemod 会直接打印 Usage,查了下 man 才弄明白;
  • 将用户添加到一个组后 groups 不能立即看到结果,必需重新登录才会生效。特别对于 VNC 登录,logout 菜单似乎不起作用,需要重启设备才行。

觉得敲命令麻烦的同学,也可以直接进入 /etc/group 文件进行修改:

$ tail /etc/group avahi:x:110: ntp:x:111: ssh:x:112: bluetooth:x:113: spi:x:999:pi i2c:x:998:pi gpio:x:997:pi lightdm:x:114: lpadmin:x:115: console:x:1001:pi,root 

 最后一行就是了。下面是执行成功后新的 ls 的输出:

# ls -lh /dev/console crw-rw---- 1 root console 5, 1 Aug  8 22:37 /dev/console 

此时再运行一次 strace open,发现针对 console 的访问成功了!

open("/dev/console", O_RDWR)            = 3 

虽然因为其它 tty 没有修改仍然出错了,但是至少证明方向是对的。

tty group

上面的方案是可行的,在查看 tty 设备时无意间得到了下面的输出:

$ ls -lh /dev/tty[0-9]* crw------- 1 root root 4,  0 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty0 crw------- 1 pi   tty  4,  1 Aug  8 23:52 /dev/tty1 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 10 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty10 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 11 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty11 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 12 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty12 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 13 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty13 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 14 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty14 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 15 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty15 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 16 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty16 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 17 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty17 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 18 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty18 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 19 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty19 crw------- 1 root root 4,  2 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty2 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 20 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty20 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 21 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty21 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 22 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty22 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 23 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty23 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 24 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty24 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 25 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty25 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 26 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty26 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 27 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty27 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 28 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty28 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 29 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty29 crw------- 1 root root 4,  3 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty3 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 30 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty30 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 31 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty31 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 32 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty32 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 33 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty33 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 34 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty34 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 35 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty35 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 36 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty36 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 37 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty37 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 38 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty38 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 39 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty39 crw------- 1 root tty  4,  4 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty4 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 40 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty40 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 41 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty41 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 42 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty42 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 43 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty43 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 44 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty44 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 45 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty45 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 46 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty46 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 47 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty47 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 48 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty48 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 49 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty49 crw------- 1 root tty  4,  5 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty5 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 50 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty50 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 51 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty51 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 52 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty52 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 53 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty53 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 54 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty54 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 55 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty55 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 56 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty56 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 57 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty57 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 58 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty58 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 59 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty59 crw------- 1 root tty  4,  6 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty6 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 60 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty60 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 61 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty61 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 62 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty62 crw------- 1 root tty  4, 63 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty63 crw------- 1 root tty  4,  7 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty7 crw------- 1 root tty  4,  8 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty8 crw------- 1 root tty  4,  9 Aug  8 23:51 /dev/tty9 

除了 tty0 / tty2 / tty3 的用户组属于 root 外,其它 tty 设备都属于 tty 用户组,原来系统早为它们准备了现成的组,我在上面创建 console 组就显得画蛇添足了,而且观察用户 pi 所属的附加组:

$ groups pi adm tty dialout cdrom sudo audio video plugdev games users input netdev gpio i2c spi console 

其中一个就是 tty,所以我从善如流的决定使用使用 tty 了。因此上节的脚本可以简化为:

su chgrp tty /dev/console /dev/tty[0-9]* chmod g+rw /dev/console /dev/tty[0-9]* exit

什么创建用户组、为用户添加附加组统统可以不要了,只需要修正 tty 设备文件的用户组就可以啦。

group permission

重启设备让修改生效后,再运行一次 strace open,发现还是有问题:

$ strace open ./fit.png execve("/bin/open", ["open", "./fit.png"], [/* 36 vars */]) = 0 brk(0)                                  = 0xe6b000 uname({sys="Linux", node="raspberrypi", ...}) = 0 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) mmap2(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f95000 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = 0 open("/etc/ld.so.preload", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=42, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 42, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76f94000 close(3)                                = 0 open("/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libarmmem.so", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 read(3, "177ELF1113(1h5004"..., 512) = 512 lseek(3, 17960, SEEK_SET)               = 17960 read(3, ""..., 960) = 960 lseek(3, 17696, SEEK_SET)               = 17696 read(3, "A.aeabi1$05666101t1n3f122424"..., 47) = 47 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=18920, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 83236, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x76f53000 mprotect(0x76f58000, 61440, PROT_NONE)  = 0 mmap2(0x76f67000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x4000) = 0x76f67000 mprotect(0x7e817000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE|PROT_EXEC|PROT_GROWSDOWN) = 0 close(3)                                = 0 munmap(0x76f94000, 42)                  = 0 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=76981, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 76981, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76f40000 close(3)                                = 0 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 read(3, "177ELF1113(1L2041004"..., 512) = 512 lseek(3, 1239936, SEEK_SET)             = 1239936 read(3, ""..., 2840) = 2840 lseek(3, 1236500, SEEK_SET)             = 1236500 read(3, "A.aeabi1$05666101t1n222423124"..., 47) = 47 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1242776, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f94000 mmap2(NULL, 1312152, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x76dff000 mprotect(0x76f2a000, 65536, PROT_NONE)  = 0 mmap2(0x76f3a000, 12288, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x12b000) = 0x76f3a000 mmap2(0x76f3d000, 9624, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f3d000 close(3)                                = 0 mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76f93000 set_tls(0x76f934c0, 0x76f93ba8, 0x76f98050, 0x76f934c0, 0x76f98050) = 0 mprotect(0x76f3a000, 8192, PROT_READ)   = 0 mprotect(0x76f53000, 20480, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0 mprotect(0x76f53000, 20480, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0 cacheflush(0x76f53000, 0x76f58000, 0, 0x15, 0x7e8170b0) = 0 mprotect(0x22000, 4096, PROT_READ)      = 0 mprotect(0x76f97000, 4096, PROT_READ)   = 0 munmap(0x76f40000, 76981)               = 0 brk(0)                                  = 0xe6b000 brk(0xe8c000)                           = 0xe8c000 open("/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=4395328, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 2097152, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76bff000 mmap2(NULL, 1720320, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0x28e000) = 0x76a5b000 close(3)                                = 0 fstat64(0, {st_mode=S_IFCHR|0620, st_rdev=makedev(136, 1), ...}) = 0 fstat64(1, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=3755, ...}) = 0 fstat64(2, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=3813, ...}) = 0 open("/proc/self/fd/0", O_RDWR)         = 3 ioctl(3, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 opost isig icanon echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(3, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7e81714b)         = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) close(3)                                = 0 open("/dev/tty", O_RDWR)                = 3 ioctl(3, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 opost isig icanon echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(3, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7e81714b)         = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) close(3)                                = 0 open("/dev/tty0", O_RDWR)               = -1 EACCES (Permission denied) open("/dev/tty0", O_WRONLY)             = 3 ioctl(3, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 -opost -isig -icanon -echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(3, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7e81714b)         = 0 ioctl(3, VT_GETSTATE, 0x7e8171a8)       = 0 ioctl(3, VIDIOC_QUERYCAP or VT_OPENQRY, 0x7e8171a4) = 0 clone(child_stack=0, flags=CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID|CLONE_CHILD_SETTID|SIGCHLD, child_tidptr=0x76f93068) = 1882 exit_group(0)                           = ? +++ exited with 0 +++ open: Unable to open /dev/tty2: 权限不够 

line 70 有一次失败,但是马上 line 71 对同一个设备操作成功,末尾出现的权限不够失败对应的 /dev/tty2 文件根本在前面没有出现过,amazing~

用 ls 大法看一看:

$ ls -lh /dev/tty[0-9]* crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  0 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty0 crw------- 1 pi   tty 4,  1 Aug  9 00:14 /dev/tty1 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 10 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty10 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 11 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty11 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 12 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty12 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 13 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty13 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 14 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty14 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 15 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty15 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 16 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty16 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 17 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty17 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 18 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty18 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 19 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty19 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  2 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty2 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 20 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty20 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 21 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty21 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 22 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty22 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 23 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty23 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 24 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty24 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 25 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty25 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 26 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty26 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 27 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty27 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 28 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty28 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 29 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty29 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  3 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty3 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 30 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty30 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 31 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty31 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 32 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty32 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 33 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty33 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 34 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty34 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 35 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty35 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 36 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty36 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 37 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty37 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 38 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty38 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 39 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty39 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  4 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty4 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 40 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty40 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 41 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty41 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 42 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty42 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 43 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty43 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 44 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty44 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 45 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty45 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 46 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty46 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 47 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty47 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 48 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty48 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 49 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty49 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  5 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty5 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 50 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty50 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 51 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty51 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 52 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty52 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 53 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty53 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 54 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty54 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 55 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty55 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 56 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty56 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 57 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty57 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 58 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty58 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 59 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty59 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  6 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty6 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 60 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty60 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 61 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty61 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 62 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty62 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4, 63 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty63 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  7 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty7 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  8 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty8 crw--w---- 1 root tty 4,  9 Aug  9 00:13 /dev/tty9 

所有 tty 设置的组权限变成了只写?难道是上一步中重启设备前我忘了设置各个文件的权限? 用 root 帐号 chmod 一下,输出这次正常了:

$ strace open ./fit.png execve("/bin/open", ["open", "./fit.png"], [/* 36 vars */]) = 0 brk(0)                                  = 0x288000 uname({sys="Linux", node="raspberrypi", ...}) = 0 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) mmap2(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76efd000 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = 0 open("/etc/ld.so.preload", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=42, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 42, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76efc000 close(3)                                = 0 open("/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libarmmem.so", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 read(3, "177ELF1113(1h5004"..., 512) = 512 lseek(3, 17960, SEEK_SET)               = 17960 read(3, ""..., 960) = 960 lseek(3, 17696, SEEK_SET)               = 17696 read(3, "A.aeabi1$05666101t1n3f122424"..., 47) = 47 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=18920, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 83236, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x76ebb000 mprotect(0x76ec0000, 61440, PROT_NONE)  = 0 mmap2(0x76ecf000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x4000) = 0x76ecf000 mprotect(0x7ea80000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE|PROT_EXEC|PROT_GROWSDOWN) = 0 close(3)                                = 0 munmap(0x76efc000, 42)                  = 0 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=76981, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 76981, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76ea8000 close(3)                                = 0 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory) open("/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 read(3, "177ELF1113(1L2041004"..., 512) = 512 lseek(3, 1239936, SEEK_SET)             = 1239936 read(3, ""..., 2840) = 2840 lseek(3, 1236500, SEEK_SET)             = 1236500 read(3, "A.aeabi1$05666101t1n222423124"..., 47) = 47 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0755, st_size=1242776, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76efc000 mmap2(NULL, 1312152, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0) = 0x76d67000 mprotect(0x76e92000, 65536, PROT_NONE)  = 0 mmap2(0x76ea2000, 12288, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_DENYWRITE, 3, 0x12b000) = 0x76ea2000 mmap2(0x76ea5000, 9624, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_FIXED|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76ea5000 close(3)                                = 0 mmap2(NULL, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0x76efb000 set_tls(0x76efb4c0, 0x76efbba8, 0x76f00050, 0x76efb4c0, 0x76f00050) = 0 mprotect(0x76ea2000, 8192, PROT_READ)   = 0 mprotect(0x76ebb000, 20480, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0 mprotect(0x76ebb000, 20480, PROT_READ|PROT_EXEC) = 0 cacheflush(0x76ebb000, 0x76ec0000, 0, 0x15, 0x7ea800b0) = 0 mprotect(0x22000, 4096, PROT_READ)      = 0 mprotect(0x76eff000, 4096, PROT_READ)   = 0 munmap(0x76ea8000, 76981)               = 0 brk(0)                                  = 0x288000 brk(0x2a9000)                           = 0x2a9000 open("/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=4395328, ...}) = 0 mmap2(NULL, 2097152, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0x76b67000 mmap2(NULL, 1720320, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0x28e000) = 0x769c3000 close(3)                                = 0 fstat64(0, {st_mode=S_IFCHR|0620, st_rdev=makedev(136, 1), ...}) = 0 fstat64(1, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=3755, ...}) = 0 fstat64(2, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=3813, ...}) = 0 open("/proc/self/fd/0", O_RDWR)         = 3 ioctl(3, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 opost isig icanon echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(3, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7ea8014b)         = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) close(3)                                = 0 open("/dev/tty", O_RDWR)                = 3 ioctl(3, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 opost isig icanon echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(3, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7ea8014b)         = -1 ENOTTY (Inappropriate ioctl for device) close(3)                                = 0 open("/dev/tty0", O_RDWR)               = 3 ioctl(3, SNDCTL_TMR_TIMEBASE or SNDRV_TIMER_IOCTL_NEXT_DEVICE or TCGETS, {B38400 -opost -isig -icanon -echo ...}) = 0 ioctl(3, KDGKBTYPE, 0x7ea8014b)         = 0 ioctl(3, VT_GETSTATE, 0x7ea801a8)       = 0 ioctl(3, VIDIOC_QUERYCAP or VT_OPENQRY, 0x7ea801a4) = 0 clone(child_stack=0, flags=CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID|CLONE_CHILD_SETTID|SIGCHLD, child_tidptr=0x76efb068) = 2013 exit_group(0)                           = ? +++ exited with 0 +++ 

不过再次重启后,这个文件权限仍然会被重置,之前使用 console group 时,也发现重启设备后 /dev/console 文件的用户组会自动重置为 root,组权限重置为空。好在这里只是将权限重置为只写,难道每次登录都要设置一遍 tty 文件权限?

xdg-open

答案是 no,倒不是因为找到了解决方案,而是即使在权限正确的情况下、open 不再报错了,图片还是没有自动打开 (汗)。于是我决定试试其它的命令,经过一番百度,找到了一个在 Ubuntu 下很常用的 xdg-open 命令,参数是要打开的图片路径,调用方式和 open 一样。话说回来,open 是我在 mac 上使用的命令,不适用 raspberrypi 是情理之中的,至于这个上的 open 是干啥的,我没找到对应的 man 记录 (还是个三无命令)。另外一开始如果使用 xdg-open,是不是就不用设置设备文件的用户组和权限了?没有试,不得而知。

结语

本文探索了诡异的 tty 设备文件权限问题,结合 linux 文件权限相关的知识进行了一番大胆的尝试,最后却另辟蹊径解决了问题。如果你在现实中遇到了类似的问题,不妨可以试试上面的方案,不管成功与否,都欢迎在文章下面留言反馈。

后记

和问题相关的都说的差不多了,下面来聊两句题外话。这次收拾尘封的树莓派,我深切的体会到了设置密码要简单的重要性,ssh 登录过程中试遍了我常用的所有密码,都不行,最后还是 1-6 拯救了我,而且 root 密码也是这个呦~

最后看着破破烂烂的亚克力塑料外壳,实在不能忍了,果断淘宝了一套新的外壳换上,换壳前后对比明显:

无法获取指向控制台的文件描述符 (couldn't get a file descriptor referring to the console)无法获取指向控制台的文件描述符 (couldn't get a file descriptor referring to the console)

最后上一张树莓派 VNC 的截图:

无法获取指向控制台的文件描述符 (couldn't get a file descriptor referring to the console)

参考

[1]. Ubuntu下通过命令打开图片

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