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序列化、反序列化XML和JSON对象常用的方式

序列化、反序列化对象常用的两种方式

目录

序列化和反序列化对象常用的两种方式

序列化是使用指定的格式将一个或多个对象转换为字节序列的过程。反序列化则是相反的过程。

我们这里记录2个常用的序列化和反序列化方法。

1、序列化为XML

2、系列化为JSON

一、序列化和反序列化XML

1.1、序列化XML

创建一个WPF程序。

新建一个类文件命名为Person,同时我们引用以下名称空间,创建Person的类中的属性,

使用[XmlAtribute(“fname”)]属性,会把按当前类属性从子节点变为当前节点的属性,文件大小就变小了。可以尝试一下去掉和不去掉之后产生的XML是否一样。

using System;                        //DateTime using System.Collections.Generic;    //List<T>,HashSet<T> using System.Xml.Serialization;      //XmlSerializer  namespace SerializationAndDeserialization {     public class Person     {         public Person()         {          }         public Person(decimal initialSalary)         {             Salary = initialSalary;         }         [XmlAttribute("fname")]         public string FirstName { get; set; }         [XmlAttribute("lname")]         public string LastName { get; set; }         [XmlAttribute("dob")]         public DateTime DateOfBirth { get; set; }         public HashSet<Person> Children { get; set; }         protected decimal Salary { get; set; }      } }  

在MainWindow.cs文件中我们在构造函数中实例化Person。序列化到文件中,然后再反序列化回来。同时我们观察使用XmlAttribute和不使用XmlAttribute有什么差别、观察属性定义为public类型和protected类型再序列化和反序列化过程中有什么不同。

using System; using System.Collections.Generic;  using System.Xml.Serialization; using System.IO; using System.Windows; using static System.Console; using static System.Environment; using static System.IO.Path;  namespace SerializationAndDeserialization {     /// <summary>     /// MainWindow.xaml 的交互逻辑     /// </summary>     public partial class MainWindow : Window     {         public MainWindow()         {             InitializeComponent();             var people = new List<Person>()             {                 new Person(30000M){ FirstName="Alice",LastName="Smith",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1974,3,14)},                 new Person(40000M){ FirstName="Bob",LastName="Jone",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1969,11,23)},                 new Person(20000M){ FirstName="Charlie",LastName="Cox",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1984,5,4),Children=new HashSet<Person>{ new Person(0M)                 { FirstName="Sally",LastName="Cox",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(2000,7,12)} } }             };             var xs = new XmlSerializer(typeof(List<Person>));             string path = Combine(CurrentDirectory, "pepple.xaml");             using (FileStream stream = File.Create(path))             {                 xs.Serialize(stream, people);             }             WriteLine("Witeten {0:N0} bytes of XML to {1}", arg0: new FileInfo(path).Length, arg1: path);             WriteLine();             WriteLine(File.ReadAllText(path));             //系列化文件中不包含Salary,因为是Protected类型。             //引用System.Xml.Serialization后使用[XmlAtribute("fname")]添加特性。文件结构就改变了,同时文件变小了。         }     }   }  

序列化、反序列化XML和JSON对象常用的方式

左边是不使用再类属性上添加 [XmlAttribute(“”)]的方法生成的xml文件。右侧是使用 [XmlAttribute(“”)]属性。右侧文件小了很多。

1.2、反序列化XML

我们现在反序列化这个XML文件。

我们添加代码后完整代码如下:

using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Xml.Serialization; using System.IO; using System.Windows; using static System.Console; using static System.Environment; using static System.IO.Path;  namespace SerializationAndDeserialization {     /// <summary>     /// MainWindow.xaml 的交互逻辑     /// </summary>     public partial class MainWindow : Window     {         public MainWindow()         {             InitializeComponent();             var people = new List<Person>()             {                 new Person(30000M){ FirstName="Alice",LastName="Smith",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1974,3,14)},                 new Person(40000M){ FirstName="Bob",LastName="Jone",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1969,11,23)},                 new Person(20000M){ FirstName="Charlie",LastName="Cox",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1984,5,4),Children=new HashSet<Person>{ new Person(0M)                 { FirstName="Sally",LastName="Cox",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(2000,7,12)} } }             };             var xs = new XmlSerializer(typeof(List<Person>));             string path = Combine(CurrentDirectory, "pepple.xaml");             using (FileStream stream = File.Create(path))             {                 xs.Serialize(stream, people);             }             WriteLine("Witeten {0:N0} bytes of XML to {1}", arg0: new FileInfo(path).Length, arg1: path);             WriteLine();             WriteLine(File.ReadAllText(path));             //系列化文件中不包含Salary,因为是Protected类型。             //引用System.Xml.Serialization后使用[XmlAtribute("fname")]添加特性。文件结构就改变了,同时文件变小了。              //反序列化             using (FileStream xmlLoad = File.Open(path, FileMode.Open))             {                 var loadedPeople = (List<Person>)xs.Deserialize(xmlLoad);                  foreach (var item in loadedPeople)                 {                     WriteLine($"{item.LastName} has {item.Children.Count} children.");                 }             }          }     } }  

点击运行,我们观察VS的输出中这三行Log。我们的反序列化就完成了。

Smith has 0 children. Jone has 0 children. Cox has 1 children. 

二、序列化和反序列化JSON

使用JSON序列化格式的最流行的.NET库之一是Newtonsoft.Json,又名Json.NET。

我们再项目右键点击弹出菜单中选择管理NuGet包,点击浏览输入Newtonsoft.Json。选中找到的Newtonsoft.Json,点击安装。

2.1、尝试序列化信息为JSON,并存放到文本文件中。

我们再后面添加如下代码

using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Xml.Serialization; using System.IO; using System.Windows; using static System.Console; using static System.Environment; using static System.IO.Path;  namespace SerializationAndDeserialization {     /// <summary>     /// MainWindow.xaml 的交互逻辑     /// </summary>     public partial class MainWindow : Window     {         public MainWindow()         {             InitializeComponent();             var people = new List<Person>()             {                 new Person(30000M){ FirstName="Alice",LastName="Smith",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1974,3,14)},                 new Person(40000M){ FirstName="Bob",LastName="Jone",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1969,11,23)},                 new Person(20000M){ FirstName="Charlie",LastName="Cox",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1984,5,4),Children=new HashSet<Person>{ new Person(0M)                 { FirstName="Sally",LastName="Cox",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(2000,7,12)} } }             };             var xs = new XmlSerializer(typeof(List<Person>));             string path = Combine(CurrentDirectory, "pepple.xaml");             using (FileStream stream = File.Create(path))             {                 xs.Serialize(stream, people);             }             WriteLine("Witeten {0:N0} bytes of XML to {1}", arg0: new FileInfo(path).Length, arg1: path);             WriteLine();             WriteLine(File.ReadAllText(path));             //系列化文件中不包含Salary,因为是Protected类型。             //引用System.Xml.Serialization后使用[XmlAtribute("fname")]添加特性。文件结构就改变了,同时文件变小了。              //反序列化             using (FileStream xmlLoad = File.Open(path, FileMode.Open))             {                 var loadedPeople = (List<Person>)xs.Deserialize(xmlLoad);                 foreach (var item in loadedPeople)                 {                     WriteLine($"{item.LastName} has {item.Children.Count} children.");                 }             }               //序列化JSON             string jsonPath = Combine(CurrentDirectory, "prople.json");             using (StreamWriter jsonStream = File.CreateText(jsonPath))             {                 var jss = new Newtonsoft.Json.JsonSerializer();                 jss.Serialize(jsonStream, people);             }             WriteLine();             WriteLine($"Written {new FileInfo(jsonPath).Length} bytes of JSON to :{jsonPath}");             WriteLine(File.ReadAllText(jsonPath));          }     } }  

调试运行输出找到Log关键行如下。

Written 365 bytes of JSON to :E:C#NotesWPF技巧SerializationAndDeserializationSerializationAndDeserializationbinDebugprople.json [{"FirstName":"Alice","LastName":"Smith","DateOfBirth":"1974-03-14T00:00:00","Children":null},{"FirstName":"Bob","LastName":"Jone","DateOfBirth":"1969-11-23T00:00:00","Children":null},{"FirstName":"Charlie","LastName":"Cox","DateOfBirth":"1984-05-04T00:00:00","Children":[{"FirstName":"Sally","LastName":"Cox","DateOfBirth":"2000-07-12T00:00:00","Children":null}]}] 

2.2反序列化JSON文件为对象

反序列化的过程,我们使用File读取文件内容,然后使用JsonConvert.DeserializeObject 来反序列化到对象。具体代码如下:

using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Xml.Serialization; using System.IO; using System.Windows; using static System.Console; using static System.Environment; using static System.IO.Path; using Newtonsoft.Json; using System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary; using System.Diagnostics;  namespace SerializationAndDeserialization {     /// <summary>     /// MainWindow.xaml 的交互逻辑     /// </summary>     public partial class MainWindow : Window     {         public MainWindow()         {             InitializeComponent();             var people = new List<Person>()             {                 new Person(30000M){ FirstName="Alice",LastName="Smith",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1974,3,14)},                 new Person(40000M){ FirstName="Bob",LastName="Jone",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1969,11,23)},                 new Person(20000M){ FirstName="Charlie",LastName="Cox",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(1984,5,4),Children=new HashSet<Person>{ new Person(0M)                 { FirstName="Sally",LastName="Cox",DateOfBirth=new DateTime(2000,7,12)} } }             };             //序列化XML             var xs = new XmlSerializer(typeof(List<Person>));             string path = Combine(CurrentDirectory, "pepple.xaml");             using (FileStream stream = File.Create(path))             {                 xs.Serialize(stream, people);             }             WriteLine("Witeten {0:N0} bytes of XML to {1}", arg0: new FileInfo(path).Length, arg1: path);             WriteLine();             WriteLine(File.ReadAllText(path));             //系列化文件中不包含Salary,因为是Protected类型。             //引用System.Xml.Serialization后使用[XmlAtribute("fname")]添加特性。文件结构就改变了,同时文件变小了。              //反序列化XML             using (FileStream xmlLoad = File.Open(path, FileMode.Open))             {                 var loadedPeople = (List<Person>)xs.Deserialize(xmlLoad);                 foreach (var item in loadedPeople)                 {                     WriteLine($"{item.LastName} has {item.Children.Count} children.");                 }             }              //序列化JSON             string jsonPath = Combine(CurrentDirectory, "prople.json");             using (StreamWriter jsonStream = File.CreateText(jsonPath))             {                 var jss = new Newtonsoft.Json.JsonSerializer();                 jss.Serialize(jsonStream, people);             }             WriteLine();             WriteLine($"Written {new FileInfo(jsonPath).Length} bytes of JSON to :{jsonPath}");             //反序列化JSON             var jsonStr = File.ReadAllText(jsonPath);             WriteLine(File.ReadAllText(jsonPath));             var persons = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<List<Person>>(jsonStr);             foreach (var item in persons)             {                 Debug.WriteLine(item.ToString());             }         }     } }  

再Person中重写ToString()方法用于再反序列化结束后打印输出内容。

using System;                        //DateTime using System.Collections.Generic;    //List<T>,HashSet<T> using System.Xml.Serialization;      //XmlSerializer  namespace SerializationAndDeserialization {     public class Person     {         public Person()         {          }         public Person(decimal initialSalary)         {             Salary = initialSalary;         }         [XmlAttribute("fname")]         public string FirstName { get; set; }         [XmlAttribute("lname")]         public string LastName { get; set; }         [XmlAttribute("dob")]         public DateTime DateOfBirth { get; set; }         public HashSet<Person> Children { get; set; }         protected decimal Salary { get; set; }         public override string ToString()         {             return $"FirstName:{FirstName},LastName:{LastName},DateOfBirth:{DateOfBirth}";         }     } }  

整体代码如上,序列化xml和反序列化xml,序列化json和反序列化json都再上面。适用于NET Core之前的版本。Net Core之后的有System.Text.Json对象。

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