WPF实现树形下拉列表框(TreeComboBox)

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所属分类:.NET技术
摘要

前言   树形下拉菜单是许多WPF应用程序中常见的用户界面元素,它能够以分层的方式展示数据,提供更好的用户体验。本文将深入探讨如何基于WPF创建一个可定制的树形下拉菜单控件,涵盖从原理到实际实现的关键步骤。

前言

  树形下拉菜单是许多WPF应用程序中常见的用户界面元素,它能够以分层的方式展示数据,提供更好的用户体验。本文将深入探讨如何基于WPF创建一个可定制的树形下拉菜单控件,涵盖从原理到实际实现的关键步骤。

一、需求分析

      树形下拉菜单控件的核心是将ComboBox与TreeView结合起来,以实现下拉时的树状数据展示。在WPF中,可以通过自定义控件模板、样式和数据绑定来实现这一目标。

      我们首先来分析一下ComboBox控件的模板。

<ControlTemplate x:Key="ComboBoxTemplate" TargetType="{x:Type ComboBox}">     <Grid x:Name="templateRoot" SnapsToDevicePixels="true">         <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>             <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>             <ColumnDefinition MinWidth="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemParameters.VerticalScrollBarWidthKey}}" Width="0"/>         </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>         <Popup x:Name="PART_Popup" AllowsTransparency="true" Grid.ColumnSpan="2" IsOpen="{Binding IsDropDownOpen, Mode=TwoWay, RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=TemplatedParent}}" Margin="1" Placement="Bottom" PopupAnimation="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemParameters.ComboBoxPopupAnimationKey}}">             <theme:SystemDropShadowChrome x:Name="shadow" Color="Transparent" MinWidth="{Binding ActualWidth, ElementName=templateRoot}" MaxHeight="{TemplateBinding MaxDropDownHeight}">                 <Border x:Name="dropDownBorder" Background="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemColors.WindowBrushKey}}" BorderBrush="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemColors.WindowFrameBrushKey}}" BorderThickness="1">                     <ScrollViewer x:Name="DropDownScrollViewer">                         <Grid x:Name="grid" RenderOptions.ClearTypeHint="Enabled">                             <Canvas x:Name="canvas" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Height="0" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="0">                                 <Rectangle x:Name="opaqueRect" Fill="{Binding Background, ElementName=dropDownBorder}" Height="{Binding ActualHeight, ElementName=dropDownBorder}" Width="{Binding ActualWidth, ElementName=dropDownBorder}"/>                             </Canvas>                             <ItemsPresenter x:Name="ItemsPresenter" KeyboardNavigation.DirectionalNavigation="Contained" SnapsToDevicePixels="{TemplateBinding SnapsToDevicePixels}"/>                         </Grid>                     </ScrollViewer>                 </Border>             </theme:SystemDropShadowChrome>         </Popup>         <ToggleButton x:Name="toggleButton" Background="{TemplateBinding Background}" BorderBrush="{TemplateBinding BorderBrush}" BorderThickness="{TemplateBinding BorderThickness}" Grid.ColumnSpan="2" IsChecked="{Binding IsDropDownOpen, Mode=TwoWay, RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=TemplatedParent}}" Style="{StaticResource ComboBoxToggleButton}"/>         <ContentPresenter x:Name="contentPresenter" ContentStringFormat="{TemplateBinding SelectionBoxItemStringFormat}" ContentTemplate="{TemplateBinding SelectionBoxItemTemplate}" Content="{TemplateBinding SelectionBoxItem}" ContentTemplateSelector="{TemplateBinding ItemTemplateSelector}" HorizontalAlignment="{TemplateBinding HorizontalContentAlignment}" IsHitTestVisible="false" Margin="{TemplateBinding Padding}" SnapsToDevicePixels="{TemplateBinding SnapsToDevicePixels}" VerticalAlignment="{TemplateBinding VerticalContentAlignment}"/>     </Grid> </ControlTemplate>

  从以上代码可以看出,其中的Popup控件就是下拉部分,那么按照常理,我们在Popup控件中放入一个TreeView控件即可实现该需求,但是现实情况远没有这么简单。我们开发一个控件,不仅要从外观上实现功能,还需要考虑数据绑定、事件触发、自定义模板等方面的问题,显然,直接放置一个TreeView控件虽然也能实现功能,但是从封装的角度看,它并不优雅,使用也不方便。那么有没有更好的方法满足以上需求呢?下面提供另一种思路,其核心思想就是融合ComboBox控件与TreeView控件模板,让控件既保留TreeView的特性,又拥有ComboBox的外观。

 二、代码实现

2.1 编辑TreeView模板;

2.2 提取ComboBox的模板代码;

2.3 将ComboBox的模板代码移植到TreeView模板中;

2.4 将TreeView模板包含ItemsPresenter部分的关键代码放入ComboBox模板中的Popup控件内;

      以下为融合后的xaml代码

<ControlTemplate TargetType="{x:Type local:TreeComboBox}">     <Grid x:Name="templateRoot" SnapsToDevicePixels="true">         <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>             <ColumnDefinition Width="*" />             <ColumnDefinition Width="0" MinWidth="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemParameters.VerticalScrollBarWidthKey}}" />         </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>         <Popup                             x:Name="PART_Popup"                             Grid.ColumnSpan="2"                             MaxHeight="{TemplateBinding MaxDropDownHeight}"                             Margin="1"                             AllowsTransparency="true"                             IsOpen="{Binding IsDropDownOpen, Mode=TwoWay, RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=TemplatedParent}}"                             Placement="Bottom"                             PopupAnimation="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemParameters.ComboBoxPopupAnimationKey}}">             <Border                                 x:Name="PART_Border"                                 Width="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource AncestorType=local:TreeComboBox}, Path=ActualWidth}"                                 Background="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemColors.WindowBrushKey}}"                                 BorderBrush="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemColors.WindowFrameBrushKey}}"                                 BorderThickness="1"                                 SnapsToDevicePixels="true">                 <ScrollViewer                                     x:Name="_tv_scrollviewer_"                                     Padding="{TemplateBinding Padding}"                                     Background="{TemplateBinding Background}"                                     CanContentScroll="false"                                     Focusable="false"                                     HorizontalScrollBarVisibility="{TemplateBinding ScrollViewer.HorizontalScrollBarVisibility}"                                     SnapsToDevicePixels="{TemplateBinding SnapsToDevicePixels}"                                     VerticalScrollBarVisibility="{TemplateBinding ScrollViewer.VerticalScrollBarVisibility}">                     <ItemsPresenter />                 </ScrollViewer>             </Border>         </Popup>         <ToggleButton                             x:Name="toggleButton"                             Grid.ColumnSpan="2"                             Background="{TemplateBinding Background}"                             BorderBrush="{TemplateBinding BorderBrush}"                             BorderThickness="{TemplateBinding BorderThickness}"                             IsChecked="{Binding IsDropDownOpen, Mode=TwoWay, RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=TemplatedParent}}"                             Style="{StaticResource ComboBoxToggleButton}" />         <ContentPresenter                             x:Name="contentPresenter"                             Margin="{TemplateBinding Padding}"                             HorizontalAlignment="{TemplateBinding HorizontalContentAlignment}"                             VerticalAlignment="{TemplateBinding VerticalContentAlignment}"                             Content="{TemplateBinding SelectionBoxItem}"                             ContentTemplate="{TemplateBinding SelectionBoxItemTemplate}"                             IsHitTestVisible="False" />     </Grid>     <ControlTemplate.Triggers>         <Trigger Property="IsEnabled" Value="false">             <Setter TargetName="PART_Border" Property="Background" Value="{DynamicResource {x:Static SystemColors.ControlBrushKey}}" />         </Trigger>         <Trigger Property="VirtualizingPanel.IsVirtualizing" Value="true">             <Setter TargetName="_tv_scrollviewer_" Property="CanContentScroll" Value="true" />         </Trigger>         <MultiTrigger>             <MultiTrigger.Conditions>                 <Condition Property="IsGrouping" Value="true" />                 <Condition Property="VirtualizingPanel.IsVirtualizingWhenGrouping" Value="false" />             </MultiTrigger.Conditions>             <Setter Property="ScrollViewer.CanContentScroll" Value="false" />         </MultiTrigger>     </ControlTemplate.Triggers> </ControlTemplate>

       以下为使用控件的代码。

<TreeComboBox                 Width="315"                 MinHeight="30"                 Padding="5"                 HorizontalAlignment="Center"                 VerticalAlignment="Top"                 VerticalContentAlignment="Stretch"                 IsAutoCollapse="True"                 ItemsSource="{Binding Collection}">     <TreeComboBox.SelectionBoxItemTemplate>         <ItemContainerTemplate>             <Border>                 <TextBlock VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="{Binding Property1}" />             </Border>         </ItemContainerTemplate>     </TreeComboBox.SelectionBoxItemTemplate>     <TreeComboBox.ItemTemplate>         <HierarchicalDataTemplate ItemsSource="{Binding Collection}">             <TextBlock                             Margin="5,0,0,0"                             VerticalAlignment="Center"                             Text="{Binding Property1}" />         </HierarchicalDataTemplate>     </TreeComboBox.ItemTemplate> </TreeComboBox>

三、运行效果

3.1 单选效果

WPF实现树形下拉列表框(TreeComboBox)

 

 3.2 多选效果

WPF实现树形下拉列表框(TreeComboBox)

 

四、个性化外观

   当控件默认外观无法满足需求时,我们可以通过编辑样式的方式来实现个性化外观,也可以引用第三方UI库样式,以下为使用MaterialDesign的效果。

4.1 单选效果

WPF实现树形下拉列表框(TreeComboBox)

 

4.2 多选效果

 

 

WPF实现树形下拉列表框(TreeComboBox)

 

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