Docker学习笔记

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所属分类:linux技术
摘要

镜像下载、域名解析、时间同步请点击 阿里云开源镜像站官网链接:Home – Docker

镜像下载、域名解析、时间同步请点击 阿里云开源镜像站

Docker概述

Docker学习链接

官网链接:Home - Docker

Docker与虚拟机比较

虚拟化技术

Docker学习笔记

容器技术不是模拟的一个完整的操作系统。

Docker学习笔记

比较Docker 和虚拟机技术不同

  • 传统虚拟机,虚拟出一台硬件,运行完整的操作系统。
  • 容器内的应用直接运行在宿主机的内容,容器是没有自己的内核的,也没有虚拟我们的听见
  • 每个容器间相互隔离,每个容器内都有一个属于自己的文件系统,互不影响。

使用Docker的好处

1、应用更快的交付和部署。

2、更便捷的升级和扩缩容

3、更简单的系统运维

4、更高效的计算资源利用。

Docker安装

Docker的基本名词

Docker学习笔记

镜像(image):

一个模板,可以通过这个模板来创建容器服务。

容器(container):

独立运行一个或者一组应用,通过镜像来创建的。

启动、停止、删除

仓库(repository):

存放镜像的地方

仓库分为:公有、私有

安装Docker步骤

安装环境检查

# 系统内核是 3.10以上的 [root@localhost ~]# uname -r 3.10.0-1160.el7.x86_64 
# 系统版本 [root@localhost ~]# uname -r 3.10.0-1160.el7.x86_64 [root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/os-release  NAME="CentOS Linux" VERSION="7 (Core)" ID="centos" ID_LIKE="rhel fedora" VERSION_ID="7" PRETTY_NAME="CentOS Linux 7 (Core)" ANSI_COLOR="0;31" CPE_NAME="cpe:/o:centos:centos:7" HOME_URL="https://www.centos.org/" BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugs.centos.org/"  CENTOS_MANTISBT_PROJECT="CentOS-7" CENTOS_MANTISBT_PROJECT_VERSION="7" REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT="centos" REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT_VERSION="7" 

Docker安装

帮助文档:Docker Documentation

# 前期准备: 1、修改主机名 # hostnamectl set-hostname docker # bash  # 2、关闭防火墙 # systemctl stop firewalld && systemctl disable firewalld # systemctl status firewalld  # 3、关闭selinux # setenforce 0 # getenforce  # sed  -i "s/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=permissive/g" /etc/selinux/config  cat /etc/selinux/config  # 4、配置网卡联网 # cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens32   # 5、配置阿里云镜像 # cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ && mkdir bak &&  mv CentOS-* bak/ # curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo  # sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo  # 6、生成本地缓存 # yum makecache fast  # 7、更新YUM源软件包 # yum update -y	 
# yum安装gcc相关环境(需要确保虚拟机可以上外网。) yum install -y gcc && yum install -y gcc-c++ 
# 本实验基于CentOS 7.9系统进行演示安装。 # 1、卸载旧版本docker yum remove docker                    docker-client                    docker-client-latest                    docker-common                    docker-latest                    docker-latest-logrotate                    docker-logrotate                    docker-engine   # 2、安装需要的安装包 # yum install -y yum-utils   # 3、设置镜像 yum-config-manager      --add-repo      https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo  # 默认镜像源是国外的,不推荐使用  yum-config-manager      --add-repo       https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo		# 推荐使用国内镜像   # 更新YUM源软件包索引 yum makecache fast  # 4、安装docker  docker-ce   ee企业版 yum install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io  # 5、启动Docker systemctl start docker && systemctl enable docker systemctl status docker   # 6、查看docker版本信息 docker version  # 7、测试,运行hello-world docker run hello-world  # 8、查看hello-world镜像 # docker images REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB 

安装完成。

Docker学习笔记

查看docker版本信息

Docker学习笔记

运行hello-world结果

Docker学习笔记

卸载Docker

# 卸载docker 1、卸载依赖 yum remove docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io  2、删除资源 rm -rf /var/lib/docker		# docker的默认工作路径 rm -rf /var/lib/containerd 

配置阿里云镜像加速

1、登录阿里云平台

2、选择"容器镜像服务"

容器镜像服务 (aliyun.com)

Docker学习笔记

3、配置使用

sudo mkdir -p /etc/docker  sudo tee /etc/docker/daemon.json <<-'EOF' {   "registry-mirrors": ["https://w2kavmmf.mirror.aliyuncs.com"] } EOF  sudo systemctl daemon-reload  sudo systemctl restart docker 

回顾hello-world运行流程

Docker学习笔记
Docker学习笔记

Docker底层工作原理

docker是一个C/S结构的系统,Docker的守护进程运行在主机上。通过Socket从客户端访问。

Docker Server接收 Docker-Client的指令。就会执行这个命令。

Docker为什么比VM块

1、Docker有着比虚拟机更少的抽象层

2、docker利用的是宿主机的内核,vn需要时Guest OS

Docker学习笔记

所以说,创建一个容器的时候,docker不需要像虚拟机一样重新加载一个操作系统内核,避免引导。

虚拟机是加载Guest OS。分钟级别的,而Docker是利用宿主机的操作系统,省略了这个复杂的过程,秒级。

Docker常用命令

Docker学习笔记

帮助命令

docker version		# 显示docker版本信息 docker info			# 显示docker系统信息 docker 命令 --help   # 帮助命令 

镜像命令

docker images 查本地主机上的所有镜像

[root@docker ~]# docker images REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB  # 解释: REPOSITORY:  镜像的仓库源 TAG:		镜像的标签 IMAGE ID :	 镜像的ID CREATED:	镜像的创建时间 SIZE:		镜像的大小  [root@docker ~]# docker images --help  Usage:  docker images [OPTIONS] [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]  List images  # 可选项 Options:   -a, --all             # Show all images   -q, --quiet           # Only show image IDs 

docker search 搜索镜像

[root@docker ~]# docker search mysql NAME                             DESCRIPTION                                     STARS     OFFICIAL   AUTOMATED mysql                            MySQL is a widely used, open-source relation…   12283     [OK]        mariadb                          MariaDB Server is a high performing open sou…   4723      [OK]        mysql/mysql-server               Optimized MySQL Server Docker images. Create…   911                  [OK]  [root@docker ~]# docker search --help  Usage:  docker search [OPTIONS] TERM  Search the Docker Hub for images  Options:     -f, --filter filter   Filter output based on conditions provided       --format string   Pretty-print search using a Go template       --limit int       Max number of search results (default 25)       --no-trunc        Don't truncate output  # 可选项,通过收藏来过滤 [root@docker ~]# docker search mysql --filter=STARS=5000 NAME      DESCRIPTION                                     STARS     OFFICIAL   AUTOMATED mysql     MySQL is a widely used, open-source relation…   12283     [OK] [root@docker ~]# 

docker pull 下载镜像

[root@docker ~]# docker pull --help  Usage:  docker pull [OPTIONS] NAME[:TAG|@DIGEST]  Pull an image or a repository from a registry  Options:   -a, --all-tags                Download all tagged images in the repository       --disable-content-trust   Skip image verification (default true)       --platform string         Set platform if server is multi-platform capable   -q, --quiet                   Suppress verbose output 
# 下载镜像 docker pull 镜像名[:tag] [root@docker ~]# docker pull mysql Using default tag: latest   	#如果不写 tag,默认是latest latest: Pulling from library/mysql 72a69066d2fe: Pull complete		# 分层下载,docker image的核心 联合文件系统 93619dbc5b36: Pull complete 99da31dd6142: Pull complete 626033c43d70: Pull complete 37d5d7efb64e: Pull complete ac563158d721: Pull complete d2ba16033dad: Pull complete 688ba7d5c01a: Pull complete 00e060b6d11d: Pull complete 1c04857f594f: Pull complete 4d7cfa90e6ea: Pull complete e0431212d27d: Pull complete Digest: sha256:e9027fe4d91c0153429607251656806cc784e914937271037f7738bd5b8e7709 #签名 Status: Downloaded newer image for mysql:latest  # 真实地址 docker.io/library/mysql:latest   #这两条命令等价 docker pull mysql docker pull docker.io/library/mysql:latest  # 指定版本下载 [root@docker ~]# docker pull mysql:5.7 5.7: Pulling from library/mysql 72a69066d2fe: Already exists 93619dbc5b36: Already exists 99da31dd6142: Already exists 626033c43d70: Already exists 37d5d7efb64e: Already exists ac563158d721: Already exists d2ba16033dad: Already exists 0ceb82207cd7: Pull complete 37f2405cae96: Pull complete e2482e017e53: Pull complete 70deed891d42: Pull complete Digest: sha256:f2ad209efe9c67104167fc609cca6973c8422939491c9345270175a300419f94 Status: Downloaded newer image for mysql:5.7 docker.io/library/mysql:5.7  [root@docker ~]# docker images REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE mysql         5.7       c20987f18b13   3 months ago   448MB mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   3 months ago   516MB hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB 

docker rmi 删除镜像

[root@docker ~]# docker rmi --help  Usage:  docker rmi [OPTIONS] IMAGE [IMAGE...]  Remove one or more images  Options:   -f, --force      Force removal of the image       --no-prune   Do not delete untagged parents 
# 查询镜像,使用IMAGE ID删除 [root@docker ~]# docker images REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE mysql         5.7       c20987f18b13   3 months ago   448MB mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   3 months ago   516MB hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB [root@docker ~]# docker rmi c20987f18b13 Untagged: mysql:5.7 Untagged: mysql@sha256:f2ad209efe9c67104167fc609cca6973c8422939491c9345270175a300419f94 Deleted: sha256:c20987f18b130f9d144c9828df630417e2a9523148930dc3963e9d0dab302a76 Deleted: sha256:6567396b065ee734fb2dbb80c8923324a778426dfd01969f091f1ab2d52c7989 Deleted: sha256:0910f12649d514b471f1583a16f672ab67e3d29d9833a15dc2df50dd5536e40f Deleted: sha256:6682af2fb40555c448b84711c7302d0f86fc716bbe9c7dc7dbd739ef9d757150 Deleted: sha256:5c062c3ac20f576d24454e74781511a5f96739f289edaadf2de934d06e910b92 [root@docker ~]# docker images REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   3 months ago   516MB hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB [root@docker ~]#  # 删除多个容器 docker rmi 容器id 容器id 容器id   # 删除所有镜像 [root@docker ~]# docker rmi -f $(docker images -aq) Untagged: mysql:latest Untagged: mysql@sha256:e9027fe4d91c0153429607251656806cc784e914937271037f7738bd5b8e7709 Deleted: sha256:3218b38490cec8d31976a40b92e09d61377359eab878db49f025e5d464367f3b Deleted: sha256:aa81ca46575069829fe1b3c654d9e8feb43b4373932159fe2cad1ac13524a2f5 Deleted: sha256:0558823b9fbe967ea6d7174999be3cc9250b3423036370dc1a6888168cbd224d Deleted: sha256:a46013db1d31231a0e1bac7eeda5ad4786dea0b1773927b45f92ea352a6d7ff9 Deleted: sha256:af161a47bb22852e9e3caf39f1dcd590b64bb8fae54315f9c2e7dc35b025e4e3 Deleted: sha256:feff1495e6982a7e91edc59b96ea74fd80e03674d92c7ec8a502b417268822ff Deleted: sha256:8805862fcb6ef9deb32d4218e9e6377f35fb351a8be7abafdf1da358b2b287ba Deleted: sha256:872d2f24c4c64a6795e86958fde075a273c35c82815f0a5025cce41edfef50c7 Deleted: sha256:6fdb3143b79e1be7181d32748dd9d4a845056dfe16ee4c827410e0edef5ad3da Deleted: sha256:b0527c827c82a8f8f37f706fcb86c420819bb7d707a8de7b664b9ca491c96838 Deleted: sha256:75147f61f29796d6528486d8b1f9fb5d122709ea35620f8ffcea0e0ad2ab0cd0 Deleted: sha256:2938c71ddf01643685879bf182b626f0a53b1356138ef73c40496182e84548aa Deleted: sha256:ad6b69b549193f81b039a1d478bc896f6e460c77c1849a4374ab95f9a3d2cea2 Untagged: hello-world:latest Untagged: hello-world@sha256:6d60b42fdd5a0aa8a718b5f2eab139868bb4fa9a03c9fe1a59ed4946317c4318 Deleted: sha256:feb5d9fea6a5e9606aa995e879d862b825965ba48de054caab5ef356dc6b3412 [root@docker ~]# docker images REPOSITORY   TAG       IMAGE ID   CREATED   SIZE 

容器命令

说明: 有了镜像才可以创建容器,Linux,下载一个centos镜像来测试学习。

docker pull centos  [root@docker ~]# docker pull centos Using default tag: latest latest: Pulling from library/centos a1d0c7532777: Pull complete Digest: sha256:a27fd8080b517143cbbbab9dfb7c8571c40d67d534bbdee55bd6c473f432b177 Status: Downloaded newer image for centos:latest docker.io/library/centos:latest 

新建容器并启动

docker run [可选参数] image  # 参数说明 --name="Name" 	# 容器名字,用来区分容器 -d			  	# 后台启动方式 -it			  	# 使用交互方式运行,进入容器查看内容 -p			  	# 指定容器的端口 -p 8080:8080 	-p ip:主机端口:容器端口 	-p 主机端口:容器端口(常用) 	-p 容器端口 	容器端口 -P			  	# 随机指定端口   # 测试 # 启动并进入容器 docker -it centos /bin/bash    [root@docker ~]# docker run -it centos /bin/bash [root@c7dfc970a91b /]# ls   #查看容器centos,基础版本,很多命令不完善 bin  etc   lib    lost+found  mnt  proc  run   srv  tmp  var dev  home  lib64  media       opt  root  sbin  sys  usr [root@c7dfc970a91b /]# exit #从容器中退回主机 exit 

列出所有运行的容器

# docker ps 命令 	# 列出当前正在运行的容器 -a	# 列出当前正在运行的容器,带出历史运行过的容器 -n=?# 显示最近创建的容器 -q	# 只显示容器的编号  [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND   CREATED   STATUS    PORTS     NAMES  [root@docker ~]# docker ps -a CONTAINER ID   IMAGE          COMMAND       CREATED              STATUS                      PORTS     NAMES c7dfc970a91b   centos         "/bin/bash"   About a minute ago   Exited (0) 46 seconds ago             frosty_swirles 3f4ea26f2030   feb5d9fea6a5   "/hello"      6 hours ago          Exited (0) 6 hours ago                flamboyant_zhukovsky  # 显示所有镜像编号 [root@docker ~]# docker ps -aq c7dfc970a91b 3f4ea26f2030 

退出容器

exit			#直接容器停止并退出 Ctrl + P + Q	#容器不停止退出   [root@docker ~]# docker run centos /bin/bash [root@docker ~]# docker run -it centos /bin/bash [root@e9e247efe0ac /]#  [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES e9e247efe0ac   centos    "/bin/bash"   28 seconds ago   Up 27 seconds             priceless_merkle [root@docker ~]# 

删除容器

docker rm 容器id				 	 # 删除指定容器(不能删除正在运行的容器) docker rm —f $(docker ps -aq) 	    # 删除所有容器 docker ps -a -q | xargs docker rm   # 删除所有的容器  # 删除正在运行的容器会报错 [root@docker ~]# docker rm e9e247efe0ac Error response from daemon: You cannot remove a running container e9e247efe0ac9f13ebabf0fc8c10f1d770d8c08617ad870e5d16d20a763fa62f. Stop the container before attempting removal or force remove  [root@docker ~]# docker ps -aq e9e247efe0ac c7dfc970a91b 3f4ea26f2030 [root@docker ~]# docker rm -f $(docker ps -aq) e9e247efe0ac c7dfc970a91b 3f4ea26f2030 [root@docker ~]# docker ps -a CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND   CREATED   STATUS    PORTS     NAMES [root@docker ~]# docker ps -aq [root@docker ~]# 

启动和停止容器的操作

docker start 容器id docker restart 容器id docker stop 容器id docker kill 容器id  [root@docker ~]# docker ps -a CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED          STATUS                     PORTS     NAMES 313175cf8109   centos    "/bin/bash"   44 seconds ago   Exited (0) 6 seconds ago             cool_kirch [root@docker ~]# docker start 313175cf8109 313175cf8109 [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED          STATUS         PORTS     NAMES 313175cf8109   centos    "/bin/bash"   56 seconds ago   Up 5 seconds             cool_kirch [root@docker ~]# docker stop 313175cf8109 313175cf8109 [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND   CREATED   STATUS    PORTS     NAMES [root@docker ~]# 

常用其他命令

1、后台启动容器

# 命令docker run -d 镜像名 [root@docker ~]# docker run -d centos  # 问题docker ps。发现CentOS停止了  # 常见的坑:docker 容器使用是后台运行,就必须要有一个前台进程,docker发现没有应用,就会自动停止 # nginx,容器启动后,发现自己没有提供服务,就会立刻停止,就是没有程序了 

2、查看日志

docker logs -f -t --tail 容器,没有日志  # 自己编写一段shell脚本 [root@docker ~]# docker run -d centos /bin/bash -c "while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done" 63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e  [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES 63334f8d0ac3   centos    "/bin/bash -c 'while…"   24 seconds ago   Up 24 seconds             ecstatic_albattani  # 显示日志 -tf   # 显示日志 --tail number #要显示日志条数  [root@docker ~]# docker logs -tf --tail 10 63334f8d0ac3 2022-03-21T13:45:24.983694039Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:25.986523455Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:26.990955021Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:27.993041663Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:28.995840669Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:30.000526171Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:31.006629083Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:32.015123258Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:33.018435524Z xybdiy 2022-03-21T13:45:34.021714677Z xybdiy [root@docker ~]# 

3、查看容器进程命令信息ps

#命令	docker top 容器id [root@docker ~]# docker top 63334f8d0ac3 UID                 PID                 PPID                C                   STIME               TTY                 TIME                CMD root                12114               12095               0                   21:44               ?                   00:00:00            /bin/bash -c while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done root                12432               12114               0                   21:48               ?                   00:00:00            /usr/bin/coreutils --coreutils-prog-shebang=sleep /usr/bin/sleep 1 [root@docker ~]# 

4、查看镜像的元数据

# 帮助命令 [root@docker ~]# docker inspect --help  Usage:  docker inspect [OPTIONS] NAME|ID [NAME|ID...]  Return low-level information on Docker objects  Options:   -f, --format string   Format the output using the given Go template   -s, --size            Display total file sizes if the type is container       --type string     Return JSON for specified type [root@docker ~]#   [root@docker ~]# docker ps -a CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS                      PORTS     NAMES 63334f8d0ac3   centos    "/bin/bash -c 'while…"   6 minutes ago    Up 6 minutes                          ecstatic_albattani d735fbaa4bc1   centos    "/bin/bash"              17 minutes ago   Exited (0) 17 minutes ago             intelligent_carver 313175cf8109   centos    "/bin/bash"              28 minutes ago   Exited (0) 18 minutes ago             cool_kirch  # 命令 docker inspect 容器id  # 测试 [root@docker ~]# docker inspect 63334f8d0ac3 [     {         "Id": "63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e",         "Created": "2022-03-21T13:44:35.503041384Z",         "Path": "/bin/bash",         "Args": [             "-c",             "while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done"         ],         "State": {             "Status": "running",             "Running": true,             "Paused": false,             "Restarting": false,             "OOMKilled": false,             "Dead": false,             "Pid": 12114,             "ExitCode": 0,             "Error": "",             "StartedAt": "2022-03-21T13:44:35.767782143Z",             "FinishedAt": "0001-01-01T00:00:00Z"         },         "Image": "sha256:5d0da3dc976460b72c77d94c8a1ad043720b0416bfc16c52c45d4847e53fadb6",         "ResolvConfPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e/resolv.conf",         "HostnamePath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e/hostname",         "HostsPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e/hosts",         "LogPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e-json.log",         "Name": "/ecstatic_albattani",         "RestartCount": 0,         "Driver": "overlay2",         "Platform": "linux",         "MountLabel": "",         "ProcessLabel": "",         "AppArmorProfile": "",         "ExecIDs": null,         "HostConfig": {             "Binds": null,             "ContainerIDFile": "",             "LogConfig": {                 "Type": "json-file",                 "Config": {}             },             "NetworkMode": "default",             "PortBindings": {},             "RestartPolicy": {                 "Name": "no",                 "MaximumRetryCount": 0             },             "AutoRemove": false,             "VolumeDriver": "",             "VolumesFrom": null,             "CapAdd": null,             "CapDrop": null,             "CgroupnsMode": "host",             "Dns": [],             "DnsOptions": [],             "DnsSearch": [],             "ExtraHosts": null,             "GroupAdd": null,             "IpcMode": "private",             "Cgroup": "",             "Links": null,             "OomScoreAdj": 0,             "PidMode": "",             "Privileged": false,             "PublishAllPorts": false,             "ReadonlyRootfs": false,             "SecurityOpt": null,             "UTSMode": "",             "UsernsMode": "",             "ShmSize": 67108864,             "Runtime": "runc",             "ConsoleSize": [                 0,                 0             ],             "Isolation": "",             "CpuShares": 0,             "Memory": 0,             "NanoCpus": 0,             "CgroupParent": "",             "BlkioWeight": 0,             "BlkioWeightDevice": [],             "BlkioDeviceReadBps": null,             "BlkioDeviceWriteBps": null,             "BlkioDeviceReadIOps": null,             "BlkioDeviceWriteIOps": null,             "CpuPeriod": 0,             "CpuQuota": 0,             "CpuRealtimePeriod": 0,             "CpuRealtimeRuntime": 0,             "CpusetCpus": "",             "CpusetMems": "",             "Devices": [],             "DeviceCgroupRules": null,             "DeviceRequests": null,             "KernelMemory": 0,             "KernelMemoryTCP": 0,             "MemoryReservation": 0,             "MemorySwap": 0,             "MemorySwappiness": null,             "OomKillDisable": false,             "PidsLimit": null,             "Ulimits": null,             "CpuCount": 0,             "CpuPercent": 0,             "IOMaximumIOps": 0,             "IOMaximumBandwidth": 0,             "MaskedPaths": [                 "/proc/asound",                 "/proc/acpi",                 "/proc/kcore",                 "/proc/keys",                 "/proc/latency_stats",                 "/proc/timer_list",                 "/proc/timer_stats",                 "/proc/sched_debug",                 "/proc/scsi",                 "/sys/firmware"             ],             "ReadonlyPaths": [                 "/proc/bus",                 "/proc/fs",                 "/proc/irq",                 "/proc/sys",                 "/proc/sysrq-trigger"             ]         },         "GraphDriver": {             "Data": {                 "LowerDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/50c20807b96cc41f57ab05f38d45f30f317437db22e2547af7edeb625f04db83-init/diff:/var/lib/docker/overlay2/ab65f0c4d3420c4a290a7d9956c96631e583ddb7102a700e94fe19b2b80893a0/diff",                 "MergedDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/50c20807b96cc41f57ab05f38d45f30f317437db22e2547af7edeb625f04db83/merged",                 "UpperDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/50c20807b96cc41f57ab05f38d45f30f317437db22e2547af7edeb625f04db83/diff",                 "WorkDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/50c20807b96cc41f57ab05f38d45f30f317437db22e2547af7edeb625f04db83/work"             },             "Name": "overlay2"         },         "Mounts": [],         "Config": {             "Hostname": "63334f8d0ac3",             "Domainname": "",             "User": "",             "AttachStdin": false,             "AttachStdout": false,             "AttachStderr": false,             "Tty": false,             "OpenStdin": false,             "StdinOnce": false,             "Env": [                 "PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"             ],             "Cmd": [                 "/bin/bash",                 "-c",                 "while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done"             ],             "Image": "centos",             "Volumes": null,             "WorkingDir": "",             "Entrypoint": null,             "OnBuild": null,             "Labels": {                 "org.label-schema.build-date": "20210915",                 "org.label-schema.license": "GPLv2",                 "org.label-schema.name": "CentOS Base Image",                 "org.label-schema.schema-version": "1.0",                 "org.label-schema.vendor": "CentOS"             }         },         "NetworkSettings": {             "Bridge": "",             "SandboxID": "88a08479f6ec55f7df18c951d743189d245ff141fb0eab1800d0ed2485dd13f3",             "HairpinMode": false,             "LinkLocalIPv6Address": "",             "LinkLocalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,             "Ports": {},             "SandboxKey": "/var/run/docker/netns/88a08479f6ec",             "SecondaryIPAddresses": null,             "SecondaryIPv6Addresses": null,             "EndpointID": "33d8d755edf77fc0294cfef8c351e9ff6ace5aef4fdd0923ab0be0f59aaf2485",             "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",             "GlobalIPv6Address": "",             "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,             "IPAddress": "172.17.0.2",             "IPPrefixLen": 16,             "IPv6Gateway": "",             "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:02",             "Networks": {                 "bridge": {                     "IPAMConfig": null,                     "Links": null,                     "Aliases": null,                     "NetworkID": "48c02734d850fe7a67cefc00923e4e72d5adc1ef05cdb8aab68373e7289fe4a7",                     "EndpointID": "33d8d755edf77fc0294cfef8c351e9ff6ace5aef4fdd0923ab0be0f59aaf2485",                     "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",                     "IPAddress": "172.17.0.2",                     "IPPrefixLen": 16,                     "IPv6Gateway": "",                     "GlobalIPv6Address": "",                     "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,                     "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:02",                     "DriverOpts": null                 }             }         }     } ] [root@docker ~]# 

5、进入当前正在运行的容器

# 通常容器都是使用后台方式运行的,需要进入容器,需要进入容器,修改一些配置。  #命令 docker exec -it 容器id  bashShell  # 测试 [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES 63334f8d0ac3   centos    "/bin/bash -c 'while…"   22 minutes ago   Up 22 minutes             ecstatic_albattani [root@docker ~]# docker exec -it 63334f8d0ac3 /bin/bash [root@63334f8d0ac3 /]# ls bin  dev  etc  home  lib  lib64  lost+found  media  mnt  opt  proc  root  run  sbin  srv  sys  tmp  usr  var [root@63334f8d0ac3 /]# ps -ef UID         PID   PPID  C STIME TTY          TIME CMD root          1      0  0 13:44 ?        00:00:00 /bin/bash -c while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done root       1362      0  0 14:07 pts/0    00:00:00 /bin/bash root       1388      1  0 14:07 ?        00:00:00 /usr/bin/coreutils --coreutils-prog-shebang=sleep /usr/bin/sleep 1 root       1389   1362  0 14:07 pts/0    00:00:00 ps -ef [root@63334f8d0ac3 /]#  #命令 docker attach  容器id  # 测试 [root@docker ~]# docker attach --help  Usage:  docker attach [OPTIONS] CONTAINER  Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container  Options:       --detach-keys string   Override the key sequence for detaching a container       --no-stdin             Do not attach STDIN       --sig-proxy            Proxy all received signals to the process (default true)  [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES 63334f8d0ac3   centos    "/bin/bash -c 'while…"   25 minutes ago   Up 25 minutes             ecstatic_albattani [root@docker ~]# docker attach 63334f8d0ac3 正在执行当前的代码   # docker exec		# 进入容器后开启一个新的终端,可以在里面操作(常用操作) # docker attach 	# 进入容器正在执行的终端,不启动新的进程 

6、从容器内拷贝文件到主机上

docker cp 容器id:容器内路径  目的主机路径  [root@docker ~]# docker images REPOSITORY   TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE centos       latest    5d0da3dc9764   6 months ago   231MB  [root@docker ~]# docker run -it centos /bin/bash [root@76539a2682cc /]#   [root@docker ~]# ls anaconda-ks.cfg  [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES 76539a2682cc   centos    "/bin/bash"   39 seconds ago   Up 39 seconds             laughing_morse  [root@docker ~]# docker attach 76539a2682cc [root@76539a2682cc /]# cd home/ [root@76539a2682cc home]# ls  # 在容器内创建test.java镜像 [root@76539a2682cc home]# touch test.java [root@76539a2682cc home]# ls test.java [root@76539a2682cc home]# exit exit [root@docker ~]# docker ps CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND   CREATED   STATUS    PORTS     NAMES [root@docker ~]# docker ps -a CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED              STATUS                      PORTS     NAMES 76539a2682cc   centos    "/bin/bash"   About a minute ago   Exited (0) 33 seconds ago             laughing_morse  # 将文件拷贝出来 [root@docker ~]# docker cp 76539a2682cc:/home/test.java /home/ [root@docker ~]# ll /home/ total 0 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 0 Mar 21 22:19 test.java  # 拷贝是一个手动的过程,以后使用 -v 卷的技术,可以实现,自动同步。 

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本文转自:https://blog.csdn.net/qq_45392321/article/details/123729513