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Ubuntu 18.04 LTS的网络经常变成问号导致网速很慢的解决办法


问题描述:

Ubuntu系统Gnome桌面顶部栏的网络图标经常变成了一个问号。期间不能打开网页,在终端里面ping公网有时能通但丢包严重,或者根本就不通,错误提示Temporary failure in name resolution,表示域名解析失败。

问题原因:

  • Ubuntu默认安装的DNS解析工具systemd-resolved存在问题;
  • 系统频繁对网络信号进行连接检查,导致不能联网。

解决办法:

一、将DNS解析工具从systemd-resolved切换为unbound

1、安装unbound

sudo apt-get install unbound 

2、安装resolvconf

sudo apt-get install resolvconf 

3、禁用默认域名解析工具systemd-resolved并停止正在运行的程序

sudo systemctl disable systemd-resolved.service sudo systemctl disable systemd-resolved 

4、配置NetworkManager,使其使用unbound作为系统的域名解析工具

sudo vim /etc/NetworkManeger/NetworkManager.conf 

在该配置文件中,紧跟plugins在下面一行加上dns=unbound

[main] plugins=ifupdown,keyfile dns=unbound  [ifupdown] managed=false  [device] wifi.scan-rand-mac-address=no   

5、手动启用unbound

sudo systemctl enable unbound-resolvconf sudo systemctl enable unbound 

6、修改unbound配置文件/etc/unbound/unbound.conf

查看unbound.conf的manual页面

man unbound.conf 

可以看到有以下一段内容:

server: 	directory: "/etc/unbound"     username: unbound     # make sure unbound can access entropy from inside the chroot.     # e.g. on linux the use these commands (on BSD, devfs(8) is used):     #      mount --bind -n /dev/random /etc/unbound/dev/random     # and  mount --bind -n /dev/log /etc/unbound/dev/log     chroot: "/etc/unbound"     # logfile: "/etc/unbound/unbound.log"  #uncomment to use logfile.     pidfile: "/etc/unbound/unbound.pid"     # verbosity: 1      # uncomment and increase to get more logging.     # listen on all interfaces, answer queries from the local subnet.     interface: 0.0.0.0     interface: ::0     access-control: 10.0.0.0/8 allow     access-control: 2001:DB8::/64 allow 

把这段配置内容追加到文件/etc/unbound/unbound.conf中:

# Unbound configuration file for Debian. # # See the unbound.conf(5) man page. # # See /usr/share/doc/unbound/examples/unbound.conf for a commented # reference config file. # # The following line includes additional configuration files from the # /etc/unbound/unbound.conf.d directory. include: "/etc/unbound/unbound.conf.d/*.conf"  directory: "/etc/unbound" username: unbound # make sure unbound can access entropy from inside the chroot. # e.g. on linux the use these commands (on BSD, devfs(8) is used): #      mount --bind -n /dev/random /etc/unbound/dev/random # and  mount --bind -n /dev/log /etc/unbound/dev/log chroot: "/etc/unbound" # logfile: "/etc/unbound/unbound.log"  #uncomment to use logfile. pidfile: "/etc/unbound/unbound.pid" # verbosity: 1      # uncomment and increase to get more logging. # listen on all interfaces, answer queries from the local subnet. interface: 0.0.0.0 interface: ::0 access-control: 10.0.0.0/8 allow access-control: 2001:DB8::/64 allow 

7、修改resolvconf配置文件/etc/resolconf/resolv.conf.d/tail

查看unbound的manual页面,可以看到有以下一段内容:

To use a locally running Unbound for resolving put               nameserver 127.0.0.1  into resolv.conf(5). 

这里意思是,要使用某一个域名服务器,就要将该服务器的键值对写入到/etc/resolv.conf中。比如要使用本地的unbound程序做域名解析,就把nameserver 127.0.0.1加入到文件/etc/resolv.conf中。

但是我们打开文件/etc/resolv.conf,发现文件头部的描述如下:

# Dynamic resolv.conf(5) file for glibc resolver(3) generated by resolvconf(8) #     DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE BY HAND -- YOUR CHANGES WILL BE OVERWRITTEN # 127.0.0.53 is the systemd-resolved stub resolver. # run "systemd-resolve --status" to see details about the actual nameservers. 

这里说明文件/etc/resolv.conf的内容是又resolvconf软件生成的,手动修改只能临时起作用,一旦主机重启文件中的内容就会消失。因此我们必须在resolvconf软件中找到配置该文件的配置文件。

查看resolvconf软件的manual页面,我们发现了如下内容:

FILES        /etc/default/resolvconf               See the ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES section.         /etc/resolvconf/interface-order               Determines the order of precedence of nameserver  addresses  and               search domain names.  See above and interface-order(5).         /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/base               File  containing  basic resolver information.  The lines in this               file are included in the resolver configuration file  even  when               no interfaces are configured.         /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/head               File  to be prepended to the dynamically generated resolver con‐               figuration file.  Normally this is just a comment line.         /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/tail               File to be appended to the dynamically generated  resolver  con‐               figuration  file.   To  append nothing, make this an empty file.               This file is a good place to put a resolver options line if  one               is needed, e.g.,                       /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/original               Copy  of the /etc/resolv.conf file before the resolvconf package               was installed.  This file has no effect on  the  functioning  of               resolvconf;  it  is  retained  so  that  /etc/resolv.conf can be               restored to its original state  if  the  resolvconf  package  is               removed.                Note  also  that a copy of this file is included in the database               until the first reboot  after  installation  of  the  resolvconf               package;  this ensures that nameservers reachable before instal‐               lation of resolvconf are still reachable after  installation  of               resolvconf  even though at that point not all suppliers of name‐               server  information  may  have  supplied  their  information  to               resolvconf(8).                Note also that the administrator can choose to create a symbolic               link in /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/ from tail to original  so               that the contents of original are always added to the end of the               dynamically generated file. 

从中找到文件 /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/tail,该文件用来生成/etc/resolv.conf的配置文件质之一。

在文件 /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/tail中加入需要的键值对之后,重启主机就能在文件/etc/resolv.conf中看到配置好的DNS:

nameserver 119.29.29.29 nameserver 233.5.5.5 nameserver 114.114.114.114 nameserver 1.1.1.1 

目前可用的DNS主要有以下:

  • 腾讯的公用免费DNS: 119.29.29.29(首选)、182.254.116.116(备选)
  • 阿里的公用免费DNS: 233.5.5.5(首选)、233.6.6.6(备选)
  • 国内移动、电信和联通通用的公用免费DNS: 114.114.114.114
  • Cloudflare的公用免费DNS: 1.1.1.1(首选)、1.0.0.1(备选)

二、关闭系统的网络连接检查

网络信号的连接检查是导致WiFi图标经常变成问号的原因,不过这种状态下并不影响主机的网络连接,只是比较影响心情。
这里的方法是:进入设置-》隐私-》关闭连接检查

三、如果不关闭网络连接检查可以配置文件/etc/ppp/options

这里的解决方法参考一篇博客Ubuntu网络频繁掉线解决方案

/etc/PPP/options其中的lcp-echo-failure默认设为4,lcp-echo-interval设为30秒,也就是说如果120秒钟之内ADSL网络服务器没有回echo-reply信号。

可能是国内ADSL网络本身的问题,服务器好像是不会回echo-reply信号(有待考证)或者很长时间才会回echo-reply信号。所以可以把上面两个参数适当地调大一些。

  • 打开配置文件/etc/ppp/options
sudo vim /etc/ppp/options 
  • 在options文件中找到以下两行代码
lcp-echo-failure 4 lcp-echo-interval 30 
  • lcp-echo-failure 4改为lcp-echo-failure 15
  • 重启主机使配置生效

其他参考资料:Ubuntu WiFi图标变成问号 网速很慢

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