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asp.net core使用identity+jwt保护你的webapi(二)——获取jwt token


前言

上一篇已经介绍了identity在web api中的基本配置,本篇来完成用户的注册,登录,获取jwt token。

开始

开始之前先配置一下jwt相关服务。

配置JWT

首先NuGet安装包:

<PackageReference Include="Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.JwtBearer" Version="5.0.10" /> 

appsettings.json中添加jwt配置:

"JwtSettings": {   "SecurityKey": "qP1yR9qH2xS0vW2lA3gI4nF0zA7fA3hB",   "ExpiresIn": "00:10:00" } 

为了方便,新建一个配置类JwtSettings

public class JwtSettings {     public string SecurityKey { get; set; }     public TimeSpan ExpiresIn { get; set; } } 

在Startup中配置jwt:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services) {     //省略......          var jwtSettings = Configuration.GetSection(nameof(JwtSettings)).Get<JwtSettings>();     services.AddSingleton(jwtSettings);     var tokenValidationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters     {         ValidateIssuer = false,         ValidateAudience = false,         ValidateIssuerSigningKey = true,         IssuerSigningKey = new SymmetricSecurityKey(Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(jwtSettings.SecurityKey)),         ClockSkew = TimeSpan.Zero,     };     services         .AddAuthentication(options =>         {             options.DefaultAuthenticateScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;             options.DefaultScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;             options.DefaultChallengeScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;         })         .AddJwtBearer(options => { options.TokenValidationParameters = tokenValidationParameters; }); } 

最后别忘了UseAuthentication

app.UseAuthentication(); // add app.UseAuthorization(); 

结构搭建

下面把项目基本结构搭建好,做好接口,后面实现:

asp.net core使用identity+jwt保护你的webapi(二)——获取jwt token

以下是各个类的定义:

// 用户注册请求参数 public class RegisterRequest {     public string UserName { get; set; }          public string Password { get; set; }          public string Address { get; set; } } 
// 用户登录请求参数 public class LoginRequest {     public string UserName { get; set; }          public string Password { get; set; } } 
// 注册 登录 成功后返回 token public class TokenResponse {     [JsonPropertyName("access_token")]      public string AccessToken { get; set; }          [JsonPropertyName("token_type")]      public string TokenType { get; set; } } 
// 登录 注册 失败时返回错误信息 public class FailedResponse {     public IEnumerable<string> Errors { get; set; } } 
// IUserService 接口 public interface IUserService {     Task<TokenResult> RegisterAsync(string username, string password, string address);          Task<TokenResult> LoginAsync(string username, string password); } 
// UserService 实现 public class UserService : IUserService {     public Task<TokenResult> RegisterAsync(string username, string password, string address)     {         throw new System.NotImplementedException();     }     public Task<TokenResult> LoginAsync(string username, string password)     {         throw new System.NotImplementedException();     } } 
// TokenResult 定义 public class TokenResult {     public bool Success => Errors == null || !Errors.Any();     public IEnumerable<string> Errors { get; set; }          public string AccessToken { get; set; }     public string TokenType { get; set; } } 

最后是UserController

[Route("api/[controller]")] [ApiController] public class UserController : ControllerBase {     private readonly IUserService _userService;     public UserController(IUserService userService)     {         _userService = userService;     }          [HttpPost("Register")]     public async Task<IActionResult> Register(RegisterRequest request)     {         var result = await _userService.RegisterAsync(request.UserName, request.Password, request.Address);         if (!result.Success)         {             return BadRequest(new FailedResponse()             {                 Errors = result.Errors             });         }         return Ok(new TokenResponse         {             AccessToken = result.AccessToken,             TokenType = result.TokenType         });     }          [HttpPost("Login")]     public async Task<IActionResult> Login(LoginRequest request)     {         var result = await _userService.LoginAsync(request.UserName, request.Password);         if (!result.Success)         {             return Unauthorized(new FailedResponse()             {                 Errors = result.Errors             });         }                  return Ok(new TokenResponse         {             AccessToken = result.AccessToken,             TokenType = result.TokenType         });     } } 

service实现

上面已经做好了基本的结构,接下来就是实现UserService中的RegisterAsyncLoginAsync方法了。这里主要用到identity中的UserManagerUserManager封装了很多用户操作的现成方法。

UserService中先做一个私有方法,根据user创建jwt token;用户注册,登录成功后调用此方法得到token返回即可:

private TokenResult GenerateJwtToken(AppUser user) {     var key = Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(_jwtSettings.SecurityKey);     var tokenDescriptor = new SecurityTokenDescriptor     {         Subject = new ClaimsIdentity(new[]         {             new Claim(JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Jti, Guid.NewGuid().ToString("N")),             new Claim(JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Sub, user.Id.ToString())         }),         IssuedAt = DateTime.UtcNow,         NotBefore = DateTime.UtcNow,         Expires = DateTime.UtcNow.Add(_jwtSettings.ExpiresIn),         SigningCredentials = new SigningCredentials(new SymmetricSecurityKey(key),             SecurityAlgorithms.HmacSha256Signature)     };     var jwtTokenHandler = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler();     var securityToken = jwtTokenHandler.CreateToken(tokenDescriptor);     var token = jwtTokenHandler.WriteToken(securityToken);     return new TokenResult()     {         AccessToken = token,         TokenType = "Bearer"     }; } 

注册方法实现:

public async Task<TokenResult> RegisterAsync(string username, string password, string address) {     var existingUser = await _userManager.FindByNameAsync(username);     if (existingUser != null)     {         return new TokenResult()         {             Errors = new[] {"user already exists!"}, //用户已存在         };     }     var newUser = new AppUser() {UserName = username, Address = address};     var isCreated = await _userManager.CreateAsync(newUser, password);     if (!isCreated.Succeeded)     {         return new TokenResult()         {             Errors = isCreated.Errors.Select(p => p.Description)         };     }     return GenerateJwtToken(newUser); } 

登录方法实现:

public async Task<TokenResult> LoginAsync(string username, string password) {     var existingUser = await _userManager.FindByNameAsync(username);     if (existingUser == null)     {         return new TokenResult()         {             Errors = new[] {"user does not exist!"}, //用户不存在         };     }     var isCorrect = await _userManager.CheckPasswordAsync(existingUser, password);     if (!isCorrect)     {         return new TokenResult()         {             Errors = new[] {"wrong user name or password!"}, //用户名或密码错误         };     }     return GenerateJwtToken(existingUser); } 

最后,别忘了注册UserService

services.AddScoped<IUserService, UserService>(); 

swagger配置

为了方便测试,可以配置一下swagger

NuGet安装包:

<PackageReference Include="Swashbuckle.AspNetCore" Version="5.6.3" /> 

ConfigureServices:

services.AddSwaggerGen(c => {     c.SwaggerDoc("v1", new OpenApiInfo     {         Title = "Sample.Api",         Version = "v1",         Description = "Sample.Api Swagger Doc"     });     c.AddSecurityDefinition("Bearer", new OpenApiSecurityScheme     {         Description = "Input the JWT like: Bearer {your token}",         Name = "Authorization",         In = ParameterLocation.Header,         Type = SecuritySchemeType.ApiKey,         BearerFormat = "JWT",         Scheme = "Bearer"     });     c.AddSecurityRequirement(new OpenApiSecurityRequirement     {         {             new OpenApiSecurityScheme             {                 Reference = new OpenApiReference                 {                     Type = ReferenceType.SecurityScheme,                     Id = "Bearer"                 }             },             Array.Empty<string>()         }     }); }); 
app.UseSwagger(); app.UseSwaggerUI(c => c.SwaggerEndpoint("/swagger/v1/swagger.json", "Sample.Api v1")); 

测试一下

asp.net core使用identity+jwt保护你的webapi(二)——获取jwt token

随便输入abc进行注册,返回了一些密码规则的错误:

asp.net core使用identity+jwt保护你的webapi(二)——获取jwt token

这个规则在注册identity服务时可以配置:

services.AddIdentityCore<AppUser>(options => {     options.Password.RequireDigit = true;     options.Password.RequireLowercase = false;     options.Password.RequireUppercase = false;     options.Password.RequireNonAlphanumeric = false; }).AddEntityFrameworkStores<AppDbContext>(); 

identityOptions还支持一些其他配置。

下面注册成功后返回了token:

asp.net core使用identity+jwt保护你的webapi(二)——获取jwt token

使用刚刚注册的账号测试登录,也没有问题:

asp.net core使用identity+jwt保护你的webapi(二)——获取jwt token

最后

本篇完成了identity的登录,注册,获取token,下一篇将介绍如何使用refresh token。

参考:

ASP.NET Core 简介 Identity | Microsoft Docs

Mohamad Lawand – DEV Community

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