Linux 内核 ASoC DMA 引擎驱动程序

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摘要

Linux 内核 ASoC 框架,在概念上将嵌入式音频系统拆分为多个可复用的组件驱动程序,包括 Codec 类驱动程序、平台类驱动程序和机器类驱动程序。在实现上,机器类驱动程序用 struct snd_soc_card 和 struct snd_soc_dai_link 结构描述,属于平台类驱动程序的 DMA 引擎驱动程序由 struct snd_soc_component_driver 结构描述,codec 类驱动程序和 I2S 等驱动程序,由 struct snd_soc_component_driver、struct snd_soc_dai_driver 和 struct snd_soc_dai_ops 等结构描述。除平台类驱动程序外的各种驱动程序都通过 component 抽象组织在一起,即这些驱动程序都作为 struct snd_soc_component_driver 注册给 Linux 内核 ASoC 框架,Linux 内核 ASoC 框架为它们各自创建 struct snd_soc_component 结构对象,并保存在 sound/soc/soc-core.c 文件中定义的全局链表 component_list 中。

Linux 内核 ASoC 框架,在概念上将嵌入式音频系统拆分为多个可复用的组件驱动程序,包括 Codec 类驱动程序、平台类驱动程序和机器类驱动程序。在实现上,机器类驱动程序用 struct snd_soc_cardstruct snd_soc_dai_link 结构描述,属于平台类驱动程序的 DMA 引擎驱动程序由 struct snd_soc_component_driver 结构描述,codec 类驱动程序和 I2S 等驱动程序,由 struct snd_soc_component_driverstruct snd_soc_dai_driverstruct snd_soc_dai_ops 等结构描述。除平台类驱动程序外的各种驱动程序都通过 component 抽象组织在一起,即这些驱动程序都作为 struct snd_soc_component_driver 注册给 Linux 内核 ASoC 框架,Linux 内核 ASoC 框架为它们各自创建 struct snd_soc_component 结构对象,并保存在 sound/soc/soc-core.c 文件中定义的全局链表 component_list 中。

一个 DMA 驱动程序的示例为 soc/pxa/pxa2xx-pcm.c

static const struct snd_soc_component_driver pxa2xx_soc_platform = { 	.pcm_construct	= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_new, 	.pcm_destruct	= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_free, 	.open		= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_open, 	.close		= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_close, 	.hw_params	= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_hw_params, 	.hw_free	= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_hw_free, 	.prepare	= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_prepare, 	.trigger	= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_trigger, 	.pointer	= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_pointer, 	.mmap		= pxa2xx_soc_pcm_mmap, };  static int pxa2xx_soc_platform_probe(struct platform_device *pdev) { 	return devm_snd_soc_register_component(&pdev->dev, &pxa2xx_soc_platform, 					       NULL, 0); }  static struct platform_driver pxa_pcm_driver = { 	.driver = { 		.name = "pxa-pcm-audio", 	},  	.probe = pxa2xx_soc_platform_probe, };  module_platform_driver(pxa_pcm_driver); 

DMA 引擎驱动程序和 I2S 或 Codec 驱动程序一样,通过 devm_snd_soc_register_component() 函数以 struct snd_soc_component_driver 的形式注册给 Linux 内核 ASoC 框架,但比较特别的地方在于,它的 dai driver 参数为空。

机器类驱动程序定义的 struct snd_soc_dai_link 结构对象通过 struct snd_soc_dai_link_component 描述它引用的其它类型的驱动程序,如机器类驱动程序 sound/soc/pxa/e800_wm9712.c 有如下的代码片段:

SND_SOC_DAILINK_DEFS(ac97, 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_CPU("pxa2xx-ac97")), 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_CODEC("wm9712-codec", "wm9712-hifi")), 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_PLATFORM("pxa-pcm-audio")));  SND_SOC_DAILINK_DEFS(ac97_aux, 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_CPU("pxa2xx-ac97-aux")), 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_CODEC("wm9712-codec", "wm9712-aux")), 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_PLATFORM("pxa-pcm-audio")));  static struct snd_soc_dai_link e800_dai[] = { 	{ 		.name = "AC97", 		.stream_name = "AC97 HiFi", 		SND_SOC_DAILINK_REG(ac97), 	}, 	{ 		.name = "AC97 Aux", 		.stream_name = "AC97 Aux", 		SND_SOC_DAILINK_REG(ac97_aux), 	}, };  static struct snd_soc_card e800 = { 	.name = "Toshiba e800", 	.owner = THIS_MODULE, 	.dai_link = e800_dai, 	.num_links = ARRAY_SIZE(e800_dai),  	.dapm_widgets = e800_dapm_widgets, 	.num_dapm_widgets = ARRAY_SIZE(e800_dapm_widgets), 	.dapm_routes = audio_map, 	.num_dapm_routes = ARRAY_SIZE(audio_map), }; 

SND_SOC_DAILINK_DEFS() 宏用于为 struct snd_soc_dai_link 方便地定义引用的 cpuscodecsplatformsstruct snd_soc_dai_link_component 数组,其中用于定义 platformsDAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_PLATFORM("pxa-pcm-audio")) 引用了上面我们看到的 DMA 引擎驱动。

Linux 内核 ASoC 框架提供了一个通用的 DMA 引擎驱动程序,位于文件 sound/soc/soc-generic-dmaengine-pcm 中。这个驱动程序本身不会主动向 Linux 内核 ASoC 框架注册自己,需要使用 DMA 引擎在设备和内存之间传数据的驱动程序要在 probe 时注册它,如 sound/soc/rockchip/rockchip_pcm.c

static const struct snd_pcm_hardware snd_rockchip_hardware = { 	.info			= SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP | 				  SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP_VALID | 				  SNDRV_PCM_INFO_PAUSE | 				  SNDRV_PCM_INFO_RESUME | 				  SNDRV_PCM_INFO_INTERLEAVED, 	.period_bytes_min	= 32, 	.period_bytes_max	= 8192, 	.periods_min		= 1, 	.periods_max		= 52, 	.buffer_bytes_max	= 64 * 1024, 	.fifo_size		= 32, };  static const struct snd_dmaengine_pcm_config rk_dmaengine_pcm_config = { 	.pcm_hardware = &snd_rockchip_hardware, 	.prepare_slave_config = snd_dmaengine_pcm_prepare_slave_config, 	.prealloc_buffer_size = 32 * 1024, };  int rockchip_pcm_platform_register(struct device *dev) { 	return devm_snd_dmaengine_pcm_register(dev, &rk_dmaengine_pcm_config, 		SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_COMPAT); } EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(rockchip_pcm_platform_register); 

这里的 rockchip_pcm_platform_register() 函数在 I2S 驱动程序的 probe 操作 (位于 sound/soc/rockchip/rockchip_i2s.c) 中调用:

static int rockchip_i2s_probe(struct platform_device *pdev) {  . . . . . .  	ret = devm_snd_soc_register_component(&pdev->dev, 					      &rockchip_i2s_component, 					      soc_dai, 1);  	if (ret) { 		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "Could not register DAIn"); 		goto err_suspend; 	}  	ret = rockchip_pcm_platform_register(&pdev->dev); 	if (ret) { 		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "Could not register PCMn"); 		goto err_suspend; 	}  	return 0;  . . . . . . 	return ret; } 

rockchip_pcm_platform_register() 函数调用 devm_snd_dmaengine_pcm_register() 函数注册通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序。devm_snd_dmaengine_pcm_register() 函数定义 (位于 sound/soc/soc-devres.c) 如下:

static void devm_dmaengine_pcm_release(struct device *dev, void *res) { 	snd_dmaengine_pcm_unregister(*(struct device **)res); }  /**  * devm_snd_dmaengine_pcm_register - resource managed dmaengine PCM registration  * @dev: The parent device for the PCM device  * @config: Platform specific PCM configuration  * @flags: Platform specific quirks  *  * Register a dmaengine based PCM device with automatic unregistration when the  * device is unregistered.  */ int devm_snd_dmaengine_pcm_register(struct device *dev, 	const struct snd_dmaengine_pcm_config *config, unsigned int flags) { 	struct device **ptr; 	int ret;  	ptr = devres_alloc(devm_dmaengine_pcm_release, sizeof(*ptr), GFP_KERNEL); 	if (!ptr) 		return -ENOMEM;  	ret = snd_dmaengine_pcm_register(dev, config, flags); 	if (ret == 0) { 		*ptr = dev; 		devres_add(dev, ptr); 	} else { 		devres_free(ptr); 	}  	return ret; } EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(devm_snd_dmaengine_pcm_register);  #endif 

devm_snd_dmaengine_pcm_register() 函数和之前看到的devm_snd_soc_register_card()devm_snd_soc_register_component() 函数一样,只是它封装的是 snd_dmaengine_pcm_register() 函数。snd_dmaengine_pcm_register() 函数定义 (位于 sound/soc/soc-generic-dmaengine-pcm.c) 如下:

static const struct snd_soc_component_driver dmaengine_pcm_component = { 	.name		= SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_DRV_NAME, 	.probe_order	= SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_LATE, 	.open		= dmaengine_pcm_open, 	.close		= dmaengine_pcm_close, 	.hw_params	= dmaengine_pcm_hw_params, 	.trigger	= dmaengine_pcm_trigger, 	.pointer	= dmaengine_pcm_pointer, 	.pcm_construct	= dmaengine_pcm_new, };  static const struct snd_soc_component_driver dmaengine_pcm_component_process = { 	.name		= SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_DRV_NAME, 	.probe_order	= SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_LATE, 	.open		= dmaengine_pcm_open, 	.close		= dmaengine_pcm_close, 	.hw_params	= dmaengine_pcm_hw_params, 	.trigger	= dmaengine_pcm_trigger, 	.pointer	= dmaengine_pcm_pointer, 	.copy_user	= dmaengine_copy_user, 	.pcm_construct	= dmaengine_pcm_new, };  static const char * const dmaengine_pcm_dma_channel_names[] = { 	[SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK] = "tx", 	[SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE] = "rx", };  static int dmaengine_pcm_request_chan_of(struct dmaengine_pcm *pcm, 	struct device *dev, const struct snd_dmaengine_pcm_config *config) { 	unsigned int i; 	const char *name; 	struct dma_chan *chan;  	if ((pcm->flags & SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_NO_DT) || (!dev->of_node && 	    !(config && config->dma_dev && config->dma_dev->of_node))) 		return 0;  	if (config && config->dma_dev) { 		/* 		 * If this warning is seen, it probably means that your Linux 		 * device structure does not match your HW device structure. 		 * It would be best to refactor the Linux device structure to 		 * correctly match the HW structure. 		 */ 		dev_warn(dev, "DMA channels sourced from device %s", 			 dev_name(config->dma_dev)); 		dev = config->dma_dev; 	}  	for_each_pcm_streams(i) { 		if (pcm->flags & SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_HALF_DUPLEX) 			name = "rx-tx"; 		else 			name = dmaengine_pcm_dma_channel_names[i]; 		if (config && config->chan_names[i]) 			name = config->chan_names[i]; 		chan = dma_request_chan(dev, name); 		if (IS_ERR(chan)) { 			/* 			 * Only report probe deferral errors, channels 			 * might not be present for devices that 			 * support only TX or only RX. 			 */ 			if (PTR_ERR(chan) == -EPROBE_DEFER) 				return -EPROBE_DEFER; 			pcm->chan[i] = NULL; 		} else { 			pcm->chan[i] = chan; 		} 		if (pcm->flags & SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_HALF_DUPLEX) 			break; 	}  	if (pcm->flags & SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_HALF_DUPLEX) 		pcm->chan[1] = pcm->chan[0];  	return 0; }  static void dmaengine_pcm_release_chan(struct dmaengine_pcm *pcm) { 	unsigned int i;  	for_each_pcm_streams(i) { 		if (!pcm->chan[i]) 			continue; 		dma_release_channel(pcm->chan[i]); 		if (pcm->flags & SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_HALF_DUPLEX) 			break; 	} }  /**  * snd_dmaengine_pcm_register - Register a dmaengine based PCM device  * @dev: The parent device for the PCM device  * @config: Platform specific PCM configuration  * @flags: Platform specific quirks  */ int snd_dmaengine_pcm_register(struct device *dev, 	const struct snd_dmaengine_pcm_config *config, unsigned int flags) { 	const struct snd_soc_component_driver *driver; 	struct dmaengine_pcm *pcm; 	int ret;  	pcm = kzalloc(sizeof(*pcm), GFP_KERNEL); 	if (!pcm) 		return -ENOMEM;  #ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS 	pcm->component.debugfs_prefix = "dma"; #endif 	pcm->config = config; 	pcm->flags = flags;  	ret = dmaengine_pcm_request_chan_of(pcm, dev, config); 	if (ret) 		goto err_free_dma;  	if (config && config->process) 		driver = &dmaengine_pcm_component_process; 	else 		driver = &dmaengine_pcm_component;  	ret = snd_soc_component_initialize(&pcm->component, driver, dev); 	if (ret) 		goto err_free_dma;  	ret = snd_soc_add_component(&pcm->component, NULL, 0); 	if (ret) 		goto err_free_dma;  	return 0;  err_free_dma: 	dmaengine_pcm_release_chan(pcm); 	kfree(pcm); 	return ret; } EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(snd_dmaengine_pcm_register);  /**  * snd_dmaengine_pcm_unregister - Removes a dmaengine based PCM device  * @dev: Parent device the PCM was register with  *  * Removes a dmaengine based PCM device previously registered with  * snd_dmaengine_pcm_register.  */ void snd_dmaengine_pcm_unregister(struct device *dev) { 	struct snd_soc_component *component; 	struct dmaengine_pcm *pcm;  	component = snd_soc_lookup_component(dev, SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_DRV_NAME); 	if (!component) 		return;  	pcm = soc_component_to_pcm(component);  	snd_soc_unregister_component_by_driver(dev, component->driver); 	dmaengine_pcm_release_chan(pcm); 	kfree(pcm); } EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(snd_dmaengine_pcm_unregister);  MODULE_LICENSE("GPL"); 

snd_dmaengine_pcm_register() 函数的执行过程如下:

  1. 动态分配一个 struct dmaengine_pcm 结构对象,并初始化其 configflags 等字段,struct dmaengine_pcm 结构定义 (位于 include/sound/dmaengine_pcm.h) 如下:
struct dmaengine_pcm { 	struct dma_chan *chan[SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_LAST + 1]; 	const struct snd_dmaengine_pcm_config *config; 	struct snd_soc_component component; 	unsigned int flags; }; 

这个结构有一个 struct snd_soc_component 结构成员;

  1. 为数据的发送和接收申请 DMA 通道,这个需要在设备树的设备节点定义中,指定发送和接收引用的 DMA 通道,像下面这样:
	i2s0_8ch: i2s@fe470000 {  . . . . . . 		dmas = <&dmac0 0>, <&dmac0 1>; 		dma-names = "tx", "rx";  . . . . . . 	}; 
  1. 根据传入的 config 参数,选择 struct snd_soc_component_driverdmaengine_pcm_component_processdmaengine_pcm_component 仅有的区别是,前者多定义了一个 copy_user 操作;

  2. 初始化并添加 struct snd_soc_component 结构对象,有一个函数 (位于 include/sound/dmaengine_pcm.h) 可以通过 struct snd_soc_component 结构对象获得 struct dmaengine_pcm 结构对象:

static inline struct dmaengine_pcm *soc_component_to_pcm(struct snd_soc_component *p) { 	return container_of(p, struct dmaengine_pcm, component); } 

通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序支持的操作由 struct snd_soc_component_driver 定义。在全局 component 链表中,相应的 struct snd_soc_component 由注册它的 dev 标识。

使用了通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序的 ASoC 机器驱动程序,示例 (位于 sound/soc/rockchip/rockchip_rt5645.c) 如下:

SND_SOC_DAILINK_DEFS(pcm, 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_EMPTY()), 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_CODEC(NULL, "rt5645-aif1")), 	DAILINK_COMP_ARRAY(COMP_EMPTY()));  static struct snd_soc_dai_link rk_dailink = { 	.name = "rt5645", 	.stream_name = "rt5645 PCM", 	.init = rk_init, 	.ops = &rk_aif1_ops, 	/* set rt5645 as slave */ 	.dai_fmt = SND_SOC_DAIFMT_I2S | SND_SOC_DAIFMT_NB_NF | 		SND_SOC_DAIFMT_CBS_CFS, 	SND_SOC_DAILINK_REG(pcm), };  static struct snd_soc_card snd_soc_card_rk = { 	.name = "I2S-RT5650", 	.owner = THIS_MODULE, 	.dai_link = &rk_dailink, 	.num_links = 1, 	.dapm_widgets = rk_dapm_widgets, 	.num_dapm_widgets = ARRAY_SIZE(rk_dapm_widgets), 	.dapm_routes = rk_audio_map, 	.num_dapm_routes = ARRAY_SIZE(rk_audio_map), 	.controls = rk_mc_controls, 	.num_controls = ARRAY_SIZE(rk_mc_controls), };  . . . . . . static int snd_rk_mc_probe(struct platform_device *pdev) {  . . . . . . 	rk_dailink.cpus->of_node = of_parse_phandle(np, 			"rockchip,i2s-controller", 0); 	if (!rk_dailink.cpus->of_node) { 		dev_err(&pdev->dev, 			"Property 'rockchip,i2s-controller' missing or invalidn"); 		ret = -EINVAL; 		goto put_codec_of_node; 	}  	rk_dailink.platforms->of_node = rk_dailink.cpus->of_node;  . . . . . . } 

这里为 dai link 定义的 cpus dai 数组和 platforms 数组中都只有一个空元素,但在 probe 操作中,根据设备树中设备节点的定义,查找了对应的 of_node。尽管 cpus dai 和 platforms 引用了相同的 of_node,但在 snd_soc_add_pcm_runtime() 函数中,为 CPU DAI 添加 struct snd_soc_component 的过程是,先查找对应的 struct snd_soc_dai,再从 struct snd_soc_dai 获得 struct snd_soc_component,这也就意味着,为 CPU DAI 查找 struct snd_soc_component 时,不会找到没有 struct snd_soc_dai 的通用 DMA 引擎的 struct snd_soc_component。为 platforms 添加 struct snd_soc_component 的过程,则是直接查找所有匹配的 struct snd_soc_component 并添加。

在为 PCM 创建 struct snd_soc_pcm_runtime 时,即在机器类驱动程序的 probe 操作中,如果为 snd_soc_dai_link 做了类似于这里的处理,使 CPU DAI 和 platform 指向相同的 of_node,且对应于 of_node 的设备驱动程序注册了通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序,通用 DMA 引擎的 struct snd_soc_component 将会包含在它的 component 链表中。

通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序的 struct snd_soc_component_driver 还有一个特别的地方是,指定了 probe_orderSND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_LATE,这使得它的 probeinit 操作,相对而言,执行的更晚,同时它在 snd_soc_card 中的位置也更靠后一点。如在 soc_probe_link_components() 函数 (位于 sound/soc/soc-core.c) 中:

static int soc_probe_component(struct snd_soc_card *card, 			       struct snd_soc_component *component) { 	struct snd_soc_dapm_context *dapm = 		snd_soc_component_get_dapm(component); 	struct snd_soc_dai *dai; 	int probed = 0; 	int ret;  	if (!strcmp(component->name, "snd-soc-dummy")) 		return 0;  	if (component->card) { 		if (component->card != card) { 			dev_err(component->dev, 				"Trying to bind component to card "%s" but is already bound to card "%s"n", 				card->name, component->card->name); 			return -ENODEV; 		} 		return 0; 	}  	ret = snd_soc_component_module_get_when_probe(component); 	if (ret < 0) 		return ret;  	component->card = card; 	soc_set_name_prefix(card, component);  	soc_init_component_debugfs(component);  	snd_soc_dapm_init(dapm, card, component);  	ret = snd_soc_dapm_new_controls(dapm, 					component->driver->dapm_widgets, 					component->driver->num_dapm_widgets);  	if (ret != 0) { 		dev_err(component->dev, 			"Failed to create new controls %dn", ret); 		goto err_probe; 	}  	for_each_component_dais(component, dai) { 		ret = snd_soc_dapm_new_dai_widgets(dapm, dai); 		if (ret != 0) { 			dev_err(component->dev, 				"Failed to create DAI widgets %dn", ret); 			goto err_probe; 		} 	}  	ret = snd_soc_component_probe(component); 	if (ret < 0) { 		dev_err(component->dev, 			"ASoC: failed to probe component %dn", ret); 		goto err_probe; 	} 	WARN(dapm->idle_bias_off && 	     dapm->bias_level != SND_SOC_BIAS_OFF, 	     "codec %s can not start from non-off bias with idle_bias_off==1n", 	     component->name); 	probed = 1;  	/* 	 * machine specific init 	 * see 	 *	snd_soc_component_set_aux() 	 */ 	ret = snd_soc_component_init(component); 	if (ret < 0) 		goto err_probe;  	ret = snd_soc_add_component_controls(component, 					     component->driver->controls, 					     component->driver->num_controls); 	if (ret < 0) 		goto err_probe;  	ret = snd_soc_dapm_add_routes(dapm, 				      component->driver->dapm_routes, 				      component->driver->num_dapm_routes); 	if (ret < 0) { 		if (card->disable_route_checks) { 			dev_info(card->dev, 				 "%s: disable_route_checks set, ignoring errors on add_routesn", 				 __func__); 		} else { 			dev_err(card->dev, 				"%s: snd_soc_dapm_add_routes failed: %dn", 				__func__, ret); 			goto err_probe; 		} 	}  	/* see for_each_card_components */ 	list_add(&component->card_list, &card->component_dev_list);  err_probe: 	if (ret < 0) 		soc_remove_component(component, probed);  	return ret; }  . . . . . . static int soc_probe_link_components(struct snd_soc_card *card) { 	struct snd_soc_component *component; 	struct snd_soc_pcm_runtime *rtd; 	int i, ret, order;  	for_each_comp_order(order) { 		for_each_card_rtds(card, rtd) { 			for_each_rtd_components(rtd, i, component) { 				if (component->driver->probe_order != order) 					continue;  				ret = soc_probe_component(card, component); 				if (ret < 0) 					return ret; 			} 		} 	}  	return 0; } 

这里用到的 for_each_comp_order() 宏定义 (位于 include/sound/soc-component.h) 如下:

#define SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_FIRST	-2 #define SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_EARLY	-1 #define SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_NORMAL	 0 #define SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_LATE		 1 #define SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_LAST		 2  #define for_each_comp_order(order)		 	for (order  = SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_FIRST;	 	     order <= SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_LAST;	 	     order++) 

Linux 内核 ASoC 通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序的操作

通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序提供的操作如下:

static const struct snd_soc_component_driver dmaengine_pcm_component = { 	.name		= SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_DRV_NAME, 	.probe_order	= SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_LATE, 	.open		= dmaengine_pcm_open, 	.close		= dmaengine_pcm_close, 	.hw_params	= dmaengine_pcm_hw_params, 	.trigger	= dmaengine_pcm_trigger, 	.pointer	= dmaengine_pcm_pointer, 	.pcm_construct	= dmaengine_pcm_new, };  static const struct snd_soc_component_driver dmaengine_pcm_component_process = { 	.name		= SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_DRV_NAME, 	.probe_order	= SND_SOC_COMP_ORDER_LATE, 	.open		= dmaengine_pcm_open, 	.close		= dmaengine_pcm_close, 	.hw_params	= dmaengine_pcm_hw_params, 	.trigger	= dmaengine_pcm_trigger, 	.pointer	= dmaengine_pcm_pointer, 	.copy_user	= dmaengine_copy_user, 	.pcm_construct	= dmaengine_pcm_new, }; 

这些操作中,最早被调用的是 pcm_construct 操作,也就是 dmaengine_pcm_new() 函数。在机器类驱动程序中,调用 devm_snd_soc_register_card() 函数注册声卡,在这个函数中有如下调用过程,snd_soc_register_card() -> snd_soc_bind_card() -> soc_init_pcm_runtime() -> soc_new_pcm() -> snd_soc_pcm_component_new()snd_soc_pcm_component_new() 函数执行各个 struct snd_soc_component_driverpcm_construct 操作。snd_soc_pcm_component_new() 函数定义 (位于 sound/soc/soc-component.c) 如下:

int snd_soc_pcm_component_new(struct snd_soc_pcm_runtime *rtd) { 	struct snd_soc_component *component; 	int ret; 	int i;  	for_each_rtd_components(rtd, i, component) { 		if (component->driver->pcm_construct) { 			ret = component->driver->pcm_construct(component, rtd); 			if (ret < 0) 				return soc_component_ret(component, ret); 		} 	}  	return 0; } 

回到通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序的 pcm_construct 操作 dmaengine_pcm_new() 函数,这个函数定义 (位于 sound/soc/soc-generic-dmaengine-pcm.c) 如下:

static int dmaengine_pcm_new(struct snd_soc_component *component, 			     struct snd_soc_pcm_runtime *rtd) { 	struct dmaengine_pcm *pcm = soc_component_to_pcm(component); 	const struct snd_dmaengine_pcm_config *config = pcm->config; 	struct device *dev = component->dev; 	struct snd_pcm_substream *substream; 	size_t prealloc_buffer_size; 	size_t max_buffer_size; 	unsigned int i;  	if (config && config->prealloc_buffer_size) { 		prealloc_buffer_size = config->prealloc_buffer_size; 		max_buffer_size = config->pcm_hardware->buffer_bytes_max; 	} else { 		prealloc_buffer_size = 512 * 1024; 		max_buffer_size = SIZE_MAX; 	}  	for_each_pcm_streams(i) { 		substream = rtd->pcm->streams[i].substream; 		if (!substream) 			continue;  		if (!pcm->chan[i] && config && config->chan_names[i]) 			pcm->chan[i] = dma_request_slave_channel(dev, 				config->chan_names[i]);  		if (!pcm->chan[i] && (pcm->flags & SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_COMPAT)) { 			pcm->chan[i] = dmaengine_pcm_compat_request_channel( 				component, rtd, substream); 		}  		if (!pcm->chan[i]) { 			dev_err(component->dev, 				"Missing dma channel for stream: %dn", i); 			return -EINVAL; 		}  		snd_pcm_set_managed_buffer(substream, 				SNDRV_DMA_TYPE_DEV_IRAM, 				dmaengine_dma_dev(pcm, substream), 				prealloc_buffer_size, 				max_buffer_size);  		if (!dmaengine_pcm_can_report_residue(dev, pcm->chan[i])) 			pcm->flags |= SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_NO_RESIDUE;  		if (rtd->pcm->streams[i].pcm->name[0] == '') { 			strscpy_pad(rtd->pcm->streams[i].pcm->name, 				    rtd->pcm->streams[i].pcm->id, 				    sizeof(rtd->pcm->streams[i].pcm->name)); 		} 	}  	return 0; } 

这个函数分别为播放和录制申请 DMA 通道,并分配 DMA buffer 用于用户空间应用程序、内核 ALSA/ASoc 框架和硬件设备之间的数据交换。snd_pcm_set_managed_buffer() 函数分配 DMA 缓冲区。snd_pcm_set_managed_buffer() 函数定义 (位于 sound/core/pcm_memory.c) 如下:

static void preallocate_pages(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, 			      int type, struct device *data, 			      size_t size, size_t max, bool managed) { 	if (snd_BUG_ON(substream->dma_buffer.dev.type)) 		return;  	substream->dma_buffer.dev.type = type; 	substream->dma_buffer.dev.dev = data;  	if (size > 0 && preallocate_dma && substream->number < maximum_substreams) 		preallocate_pcm_pages(substream, size);  	if (substream->dma_buffer.bytes > 0) 		substream->buffer_bytes_max = substream->dma_buffer.bytes; 	substream->dma_max = max; 	if (max > 0) 		preallocate_info_init(substream); 	if (managed) 		substream->managed_buffer_alloc = 1; }  . . . . . . void snd_pcm_set_managed_buffer(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, int type, 				struct device *data, size_t size, size_t max) { 	preallocate_pages(substream, type, data, size, max, true); } EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_pcm_set_managed_buffer); 

open 操作 dmaengine_pcm_open() 函数完成数据传输之前的准备工作,这个函数定义如下:

static int dmaengine_pcm_set_runtime_hwparams(struct snd_soc_component *component, 				   struct snd_pcm_substream *substream) { 	struct snd_soc_pcm_runtime *rtd = asoc_substream_to_rtd(substream); 	struct dmaengine_pcm *pcm = soc_component_to_pcm(component); 	struct device *dma_dev = dmaengine_dma_dev(pcm, substream); 	struct dma_chan *chan = pcm->chan[substream->stream]; 	struct snd_dmaengine_dai_dma_data *dma_data; 	struct snd_pcm_hardware hw;  	if (rtd->num_cpus > 1) { 		dev_err(rtd->dev, 			"%s doesn't support Multi CPU yetn", __func__); 		return -EINVAL; 	}  	if (pcm->config && pcm->config->pcm_hardware) 		return snd_soc_set_runtime_hwparams(substream, 				pcm->config->pcm_hardware);  	dma_data = snd_soc_dai_get_dma_data(asoc_rtd_to_cpu(rtd, 0), substream);  	memset(&hw, 0, sizeof(hw)); 	hw.info = SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP | SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP_VALID | 			SNDRV_PCM_INFO_INTERLEAVED; 	hw.periods_min = 2; 	hw.periods_max = UINT_MAX; 	hw.period_bytes_min = 256; 	hw.period_bytes_max = dma_get_max_seg_size(dma_dev); 	hw.buffer_bytes_max = SIZE_MAX; 	hw.fifo_size = dma_data->fifo_size;  	if (pcm->flags & SND_DMAENGINE_PCM_FLAG_NO_RESIDUE) 		hw.info |= SNDRV_PCM_INFO_BATCH;  	/** 	 * FIXME: Remove the return value check to align with the code 	 * before adding snd_dmaengine_pcm_refine_runtime_hwparams 	 * function. 	 */ 	snd_dmaengine_pcm_refine_runtime_hwparams(substream, 						  dma_data, 						  &hw, 						  chan);  	return snd_soc_set_runtime_hwparams(substream, &hw); }  static int dmaengine_pcm_open(struct snd_soc_component *component, 			      struct snd_pcm_substream *substream) { 	struct dmaengine_pcm *pcm = soc_component_to_pcm(component); 	struct dma_chan *chan = pcm->chan[substream->stream]; 	int ret;  	ret = dmaengine_pcm_set_runtime_hwparams(component, substream); 	if (ret) 		return ret;  	return snd_dmaengine_pcm_open(substream, chan); } 

这里调用 snd_soc_dai_get_dma_data() 函数获得类型为 struct snd_dmaengine_dai_dma_data 的 DMA 数据。这是通用 DMA 引擎驱动程序和 I2S 等 DAI 驱动程序的一个约定,即需要在 DAI 驱动程序的 probe 操作中设置 DMA 数据,类似于下面这样:

struct i2s_dev { 	struct device *dev;  . . . . . . 	struct snd_dmaengine_dai_dma_data capture_dma_data; 	struct snd_dmaengine_dai_dma_data playback_dma_data;  . . . . . . }  . . . . . . static int i2s_dai_probe(struct snd_soc_dai *dai) { 	struct i2s_dev *i2s = snd_soc_dai_get_drvdata(dai);  	snd_soc_dai_init_dma_data(dai, 		i2s->has_playback ? &i2s->playback_dma_data : NULL, 		i2s->has_capture  ? &i2s->capture_dma_data  : NULL);  	return 0; }  . . . . . . static int i2s_init_dai(struct i2s_dev *i2s, struct resource *res, 								 struct snd_soc_dai_driver **dp) {  . . . . . . 		i2s->playback_dma_data.addr = res->start + I2S_TXFIFODATA; 		i2s->playback_dma_data.addr_width = DMA_SLAVE_BUSWIDTH_4_BYTES; 		i2s->playback_dma_data.maxburst = 8;   . . . . . . 		i2s->capture_dma_data.addr = res->start + I2S_RXFIFODATA; 		i2s->capture_dma_data.addr_width = DMA_SLAVE_BUSWIDTH_4_BYTES; 		i2s->capture_dma_data.maxburst = 8;  . . . . . . } 

dmaengine_pcm_open() 函数主要是为流设置了运行时硬件参数。

对于其它操作,暂时不做太多说明。

Done.