WPF工控组态软件之冷却塔和空气压缩机开发

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摘要

WPF以其丰富灵活的控件样式设计,相较于WinForm而言,一直是工控组态软件的宠儿。经过上一篇文章的学习,已经对WPF开发工控组态软件有了一个基本的了解, 今天继续学习冷却塔和空气压缩机的开发,仅供学习分享使用,如有不足之处,还请指正。

WPF以其丰富灵活的控件样式设计,相较于WinForm而言,一直是工控组态软件的宠儿。经过上一篇文章的学习,已经对WPF开发工控组态软件有了一个基本的了解, 今天继续学习冷却塔和空气压缩机的开发,仅供学习分享使用,如有不足之处,还请指正。

WPF工控组态软件之冷却塔和空气压缩机开发

设计知识点

关于本示例中,涉及的知识点,如下所示:

  • 自定义用户控件,用户可以根据业务需要自定义控件,将普通的控件进行组合,封装,以满足特定的功能,并达到复用的目的。
  • WPF形状,动画,可以通过选择,移动,变形等相关功能,改变控件的呈现形状。
  • 依赖属性,WPF可以通过依赖属性进行数据的绑定,实现UI与业务逻辑的解耦。

冷却塔CoolingTower

冷却塔组成拆解

关于冷却塔的组成部分,经过拆解如下所示:

  1. 顶部一个经过旋转和缩放的风扇(Path)
  2. 一个椭圆形(Ellipse)和一个路径形状(Path),使得椭圆看起来像立体一样
  3. 一个不规则形状多边形(Ploygon)
  4. 一个四边形(Border),两个圆形指示灯(Border),两个四边形底座(Border),表示前景和侧面。

经过以上分析,不难发现,复杂的图形均是由简单的图形组合起来的。

冷却塔示例截图

冷却塔正常运转时,绿灯亮且风扇转动,异常时红灯亮,且风扇停止。截图如下所示:

WPF工控组态软件之冷却塔和空气压缩机开发

冷却塔源码

冷却塔源码分为三个组成部分,如下所示:

1. 控件布局

控件布局主要是排版布局形状等内容。如下所示:

  1 <Viewbox HorizontalAlignment="Center" VerticalAlignment="Center">   2     <Canvas Width="205" Height="245" Margin="5">   3         <Polygon Points="0,65 40,10 205,10 180,65 " Fill="#EEE"></Polygon>   4         <Path Data="M0 0 A60 15 0 0 0 120 0 L120 25 A60 15 0 0 1 0 25" Canvas.Left="45" Canvas.Top="15">   5             <Path.Fill>   6                 <LinearGradientBrush EndPoint="1,0" StartPoint="0,0">   7                     <GradientStop Color="#FFD6D6D6" Offset="0"></GradientStop>   8                     <GradientStop Color="White" Offset="0.52"></GradientStop>   9                     <GradientStop Color="#FFD6D6D6" Offset="1"></GradientStop>  10                 </LinearGradientBrush>  11             </Path.Fill>  12         </Path>  13         <Ellipse Width="120" Height="30" Fill="#CCC" Canvas.Left="45"></Ellipse>  14         <Border Canvas.Left="52" Canvas.Top="-38">  15             <Viewbox Width="105" Height="105" RenderTransformOrigin="0.5,0.5">  16                 <Viewbox.RenderTransform>  17                     <TransformGroup>  18                         <RotateTransform Angle="20" x:Name="rt"></RotateTransform>  19                         <ScaleTransform ScaleY="0.25"></ScaleTransform>  20                     </TransformGroup>  21                 </Viewbox.RenderTransform>  22                 <Path Stretch="Fill" Data="M261.851429 528.822857c-43.885714-24.868571-84.845714-23.405714-121.417143 5.851429-35.108571 26.331429-49.737143 62.902857-43.885715 106.788571 5.851429 38.034286 19.017143 74.605714 40.96 108.251429 21.942857 35.108571 46.811429 59.977143 76.068572 74.605714 78.994286 40.96 147.748571 29.257143 207.725714-35.108571 19.017143-20.48 33.645714-43.885714 46.811429-73.142858 14.628571-32.182857 23.405714-61.44 24.868571-90.697142 0-14.628571 7.314286-21.942857 19.017143-21.942858s19.017143 5.851429 24.868571 16.091429c17.554286 51.2 14.628571 99.474286-10.24 143.36-24.868571 43.885714-21.942857 84.845714 4.388572 119.954286 26.331429 35.108571 62.902857 49.737143 106.788571 42.422857 38.034286-5.851429 74.605714-19.017143 108.251429-40.96 35.108571-21.942857 59.977143-46.811429 74.605714-76.068572 40.96-78.994286 29.257143-147.748571-36.571428-206.262857-20.48-19.017143-43.885714-35.108571-73.142858-48.274285-32.182857-14.628571-61.44-23.405714-90.697142-24.868572-14.628571 0-21.942857-7.314286-21.942858-19.017143s5.851429-20.48 17.554286-23.405714c20.48-7.314286 40.96-11.702857 62.902857-11.702857 27.794286 0 54.125714 7.314286 78.994286 20.48 43.885714 24.868571 84.845714 23.405714 121.417143-4.388572 35.108571-26.331429 49.737143-62.902857 43.885714-106.788571-5.851429-38.034286-19.017143-74.605714-40.96-108.251429-21.942857-35.108571-46.811429-59.977143-76.068571-74.605714-78.994286-40.96-147.748571-29.257143-207.725715 35.108572-19.017143 20.48-33.645714 45.348571-46.811428 73.142857-14.628571 32.182857-23.405714 62.902857-24.868572 90.697143 0 13.165714-7.314286 20.48-19.017142 21.942857s-20.48-5.851429-24.868572-16.091429c-7.314286-20.48-10.24-40.96-10.24-64.365714 0-27.794286 7.314286-54.125714 20.48-78.994286 24.868571-43.885714 21.942857-84.845714-4.388571-119.954286-26.331429-35.108571-61.44-49.737143-105.325715-43.885714-38.034286 5.851429-74.605714 19.017143-108.251428 40.96-35.108571 21.942857-59.977143 46.811429-76.068572 76.068572-40.96 78.994286-29.257143 147.748571 36.571429 207.725714 20.48 19.017143 45.348571 35.108571 73.142857 48.274286 32.182857 14.628571 61.44 21.942857 90.697143 23.405714 14.628571 0 21.942857 7.314286 21.942857 19.017143s-5.851429 20.48-17.554286 24.868571c-49.737143 17.554286-98.011429 14.628571-141.897142-10.24m279.405714-46.811428c8.777143 8.777143 11.702857 17.554286 11.702857 29.257142s-4.388571 21.942857-11.702857 30.72c-8.777143 7.314286-17.554286 11.702857-29.257143 11.702858s-21.942857-4.388571-30.72-11.702858c-8.777143-8.777143-11.702857-19.017143-11.702857-30.72s4.388571-21.942857 11.702857-29.257142c8.777143-8.777143 19.017143-13.165714 30.72-13.165715 11.702857 1.462857 20.48 4.388571 29.257143 13.165715z" Fill="#EEE">  23                 </Path>  24             </Viewbox>  25         </Border>  26         <Grid Width="180" Height="180" Canvas.Top="65" Background="#E0E0E0">  27             <Border VerticalAlignment="Top" Height="140" BorderThickness="10">  28                 <Border.Background>  29                     <DrawingBrush TileMode="Tile" ViewportUnits="Absolute" Viewport="1,0,25,1">  30                         <DrawingBrush.Drawing>  31                             <GeometryDrawing>  32                                 <GeometryDrawing.Pen>  33                                     <Pen Brush="#EEE"></Pen>  34                                 </GeometryDrawing.Pen>  35                                 <GeometryDrawing.Geometry>  36                                     <PathGeometry>  37                                         <PathFigure>  38                                             <LineSegment Point="10,0"></LineSegment>  39                                             <LineSegment Point="10,10"></LineSegment>  40                                         </PathFigure>  41                                     </PathGeometry>  42                                 </GeometryDrawing.Geometry>  43                             </GeometryDrawing>  44                         </DrawingBrush.Drawing>  45                     </DrawingBrush>  46                 </Border.Background>  47             </Border>  48             <Grid Height="50" VerticalAlignment="Bottom">  49                 <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>  50                     <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition>  51                     <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition>  52                 </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>  53                 <Border Background="DarkGray" Grid.Column="0" Margin="5,0"></Border>  54                 <Border Background="DarkGray" Grid.Column="1" Margin="5,0"></Border>  55             </Grid>  56          </Grid>  57   58         <Grid Width="180" Height="180" Canvas.Top="65" Canvas.Left="180" Background="#E0E0E0">  59             <Grid.RenderTransform>  60                 <TransformGroup>  61                     <ScaleTransform ScaleX="0.139"></ScaleTransform>  62                     <SkewTransform AngleY="-65.5"></SkewTransform>  63                 </TransformGroup>  64             </Grid.RenderTransform>  65             <Border VerticalAlignment="Top" Height="140" BorderThickness="10">  66                 <Border.Background>  67                     <DrawingBrush TileMode="Tile" ViewportUnits="Absolute" Viewport="1,0,25,1">  68                         <DrawingBrush.Drawing>  69                             <GeometryDrawing>  70                                 <GeometryDrawing.Pen>  71                                     <Pen Brush="#EEE"></Pen>  72                                 </GeometryDrawing.Pen>  73                                 <GeometryDrawing.Geometry>  74                                     <PathGeometry>  75                                         <PathFigure>  76                                             <LineSegment Point="10,0"></LineSegment>  77                                             <LineSegment Point="10,10"></LineSegment>  78                                         </PathFigure>  79                                     </PathGeometry>  80                                 </GeometryDrawing.Geometry>  81                             </GeometryDrawing>  82                         </DrawingBrush.Drawing>  83                     </DrawingBrush>  84                 </Border.Background>  85             </Border>  86             <Grid Height="50" VerticalAlignment="Bottom">  87                 <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>  88                     <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition>  89                     <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition>  90                 </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>  91                 <Border Background="DarkGray" Grid.Column="0" Margin="5,0"></Border>  92                 <Border Background="DarkGray" Grid.Column="1" Margin="5,0"></Border>  93             </Grid>  94         </Grid>  95   96         <Border Width="18" Height="18" CornerRadius="10" Canvas.Left="150" Canvas.Top="80">  97             <Border.Background>  98                 <RadialGradientBrush>  99                     <GradientStop Color="Gray" Offset="0.6" x:Name="gsGreen"></GradientStop> 100                     <GradientStop Color="White"></GradientStop> 101                 </RadialGradientBrush> 102             </Border.Background> 103         </Border> 104         <Border Width="18" Height="18" CornerRadius="10" Canvas.Left="150" Canvas.Top="105"> 105             <Border.Background> 106                 <RadialGradientBrush> 107                     <GradientStop Color="Gray" Offset="0.6" x:Name="gsRed"></GradientStop> 108                     <GradientStop Color="White"></GradientStop> 109                 </RadialGradientBrush> 110             </Border.Background> 111         </Border> 112     </Canvas> 113 </Viewbox>

2. 状态管理

冷却塔有两个状态,正常运行状态和异常状态,分别对应不同的呈现。如下所示:

 1 <VisualStateManager.VisualStateGroups>  2     <VisualStateGroup>  3         <VisualState x:Name="normalState">  4             <Storyboard>  5                 <DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:0.5" From="0" To="-360" RepeatBehavior="Forever" Storyboard.TargetName="rt" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Angle"></DoubleAnimation>  6                 <ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames Storyboard.TargetName="gsGreen" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Color">  7                     <DiscreteColorKeyFrame Value="Green" KeyTime="0"></DiscreteColorKeyFrame>  8                 </ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames>  9             </Storyboard> 10         </VisualState> 11         <VisualState x:Name="errorState"> 12             <Storyboard> 13                 <ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames Storyboard.TargetName="gsRed" RepeatBehavior="Forever" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Color" Duration="0:0:1"> 14                     <DiscreteColorKeyFrame Value="Red" KeyTime="0:0:0.5"></DiscreteColorKeyFrame> 15                     <DiscreteColorKeyFrame Value="Gray" KeyTime="0:0:1"></DiscreteColorKeyFrame> 16                 </ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames> 17             </Storyboard> 18         </VisualState> 19     </VisualStateGroup> 20 </VisualStateManager.VisualStateGroups>

3. 依赖属性

在本示例中,依赖属性主要用于控制状态,如下所示:

 1 namespace WpfControl.UserControls  2 {  3     /// <summary>  4     /// CoolingTower.xaml 的交互逻辑  5     /// </summary>  6     public partial class CoolingTower : UserControl  7     {  8         public RunningState RunningState  9         { 10             get { return (RunningState)GetValue(RunningStateProperty); } 11             set { SetValue(RunningStateProperty, value); } 12         } 13  14         // Using a DependencyProperty as the backing store for RunningState.  This enables animation, styling, binding, etc... 15         public static readonly DependencyProperty RunningStateProperty = 16             DependencyProperty.Register("RunningState", typeof(RunningState), typeof(CoolingTower), new PropertyMetadata(default(RunningState), RunningStateChangedCallback)); 17  18         private static void RunningStateChangedCallback(DependencyObject d, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e) 19         { 20             RunningState value = (RunningState)e.NewValue; 21             VisualStateManager.GoToState(d as CoolingTower, value == RunningState.Normal ? "normalState" : "errorState", false); 22         } 23         public CoolingTower() 24         { 25             InitializeComponent(); 26         } 27     } 28 }

4. 调用示例

组件写好后,调用非常简单,如下所示:

 1 <Window x:Class="WpfControl.TestWindow2"  2         xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"  3         xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"  4         xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"  5         xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"  6         xmlns:local="clr-namespace:WpfControl"  7         xmlns:uctrl="clr-namespace:WpfControl.UserControls"  8         mc:Ignorable="d"  9         Title="冷却塔" Height="450" Width="800"> 10     <Grid> 11         <Grid.ColumnDefinitions> 12             <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition> 13             <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition> 14         </Grid.ColumnDefinitions> 15         <uctrl:CoolingTower Grid.Column="0" RunningState="Error" Width="100" Height="100"></uctrl:CoolingTower> 16         <uctrl:CoolingTower Grid.Column="1" RunningState="Normal" Width="100" Height="100"></uctrl:CoolingTower> 17     </Grid> 18 </Window>

 

空气压缩机AirCompresser

空气压缩机功能拆解

关于空气压缩式机的组成部分,经过拆解如下所示:

  1. 左侧一个四边形(Path)
  2. 顶部一个四边形(Path)
  3. 前景一个四边形(Path),两条线(Line)
  4. 两个小圆点(Ellipse)
  5. 底部一个四边形(Border)
  6. 右上角指示灯(Ellipse)

经过以上分析,不难发现,空气压缩机均是由简单的图形组合起来的。

空气压缩机示例截图

空气压缩式机同样包括两种状态,正常状态,绿灯亮和异常状态,红灯闪烁。示例截图如下所示:

WPF工控组态软件之冷却塔和空气压缩机开发

空气压缩机源码

空气压缩机源码分为三个组成部分,如下所示:

1. 页面布局

页面布局主要进行控件的排版,如下所示:

 1  <Viewbox Stretch="Fill">  2     <Grid>  3         <Path x:Name="left" Data="M0,0,0,200,80,300,80,70" Fill="Gray"></Path>  4         <Path x:Name="top" Data="M0,0,80,70,400,60,320 -10" Fill="Gray"></Path>  5         <Path x:Name="front" Data="M80,300,80,70,400,60,400,280" Fill="LightGray"></Path>  6         <Line x:Name="l1" X1="180" X2="180" Y1="66" Y2="280" StrokeThickness="1" Stroke="Gray"></Line>  7         <Line x:Name="l2" X1="280" X2="280" Y1="66" Y2="280" StrokeThickness="1" Stroke="Gray"></Line>  8         <Ellipse x:Name="c1" Width="10" Height="10" Fill="DarkGray"></Ellipse>  9         <Ellipse x:Name="c2" Width="10" Height="10" Fill="DarkGray" Margin="0,3,80,0"></Ellipse> 10         <Border x:Name="bottom"  Height="22" Background="DarkGray" Margin="80,0,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Bottom"> 11             <Border.RenderTransform> 12                 <SkewTransform AngleY="-4"></SkewTransform> 13             </Border.RenderTransform> 14         </Border> 15         <Ellipse x:Name="alarm"  Width="18" Height="18" Margin="0,80,10,0" HorizontalAlignment="Right" VerticalAlignment="Top"> 16             <Ellipse.Fill> 17                 <SolidColorBrush Color="LightGray"></SolidColorBrush> 18             </Ellipse.Fill> 19         </Ellipse> 20     </Grid> 21 </Viewbox>

2. 状态管理

空气压缩机主要有两种状态,分别表示不同的运行情况,如下所示:

 1 <VisualStateManager.VisualStateGroups>  2     <VisualStateGroup>  3         <VisualState x:Name="errorState">  4             <Storyboard RepeatBehavior="Forever">  5                 <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.5" From="White" To="Red" BeginTime="0:0:0"   Storyboard.TargetName="alarm" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Fill.Color"></ColorAnimation>  6             </Storyboard>  7         </VisualState>  8         <VisualState x:Name="normalSate">  9             <Storyboard RepeatBehavior="Forever"> 10                 <ColorAnimation Duration="0:0:0.1" From="LightGreen" To="LightGreen" BeginTime="0:0:0" Storyboard.TargetName="alarm" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Fill.Color"></ColorAnimation> 11             </Storyboard> 12         </VisualState> 13     </VisualStateGroup> 14 </VisualStateManager.VisualStateGroups>

3. 依赖属性

空气压缩机的依赖属性和冷却塔相似,如下所示:

 1 namespace WpfControl.UserControls  2 {  3     /// <summary>  4     /// AirCompresser.xaml 的交互逻辑  5     /// </summary>  6     public partial class AirCompresser : UserControl  7     {  8   9  10  11  12         public RunningState RunningState 13         { 14             get { return (RunningState)GetValue(RunningStateProperty); } 15             set { SetValue(RunningStateProperty, value); } 16         } 17  18         // Using a DependencyProperty as the backing store for RunningState.  This enables animation, styling, binding, etc... 19         public static readonly DependencyProperty RunningStateProperty = 20             DependencyProperty.Register("RunningState", typeof(RunningState), typeof(AirCompresser), new PropertyMetadata(default(RunningState),RunningStateChangedCallback)); 21  22         private static void RunningStateChangedCallback(DependencyObject d, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e) 23         { 24             RunningState value = (RunningState)e.NewValue; 25             VisualStateManager.GoToState(d as AirCompresser, value == RunningState.Error ? "errorState" : "normalSate", false); 26         } 27  28         public AirCompresser() 29         { 30             InitializeComponent(); 31         } 32     } 33 }

4. 调用示例

调用空气压缩机示例,如下所示:

 1 <Window x:Class="WpfControl.TestWindow"  2         xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"  3         xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"  4         xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"  5         xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"  6         xmlns:local="clr-namespace:WpfControl"  7         xmlns:uctrl="clr-namespace:WpfControl.UserControls"  8         mc:Ignorable="d"  9         Title="空气压缩机示例" Height="450" Width="800"> 10     <Grid> 11         <uctrl:AirCompresser Width="150" Height="100" RunningState="Error" Margin="10,10,0,0" HorizontalAlignment="Left" VerticalAlignment="Top"></uctrl:AirCompresser> 12         <uctrl:AirCompresser Width="150" Height="100" RunningState="Normal" Margin="50,200,0,0" HorizontalAlignment="Left" VerticalAlignment="Top"></uctrl:AirCompresser> 13         <uctrl:AirCompresser Width="150" Height="100" RunningState="Normal" Margin="0,0,10,10" HorizontalAlignment="Right" VerticalAlignment="Bottom"></uctrl:AirCompresser> 14         <uctrl:AirCompresser Width="150" Height="100" RunningState="Error" Margin="0,0,50,200" HorizontalAlignment="Right" VerticalAlignment="Bottom"></uctrl:AirCompresser> 15     </Grid> 16 </Window>

备注

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