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RESTFul API

目录

一、前言

RESTful API 是基于HTTP协议产生的一种相对简单的API设计方案;

RESTful 的核心是 everything is a “resource”,所有的HTTP action,都应该是相应resource上可以被操作和处理的,而API 就是对资源的管理操作,而这个具体操作是由 HTTP action 指定的。

使用HTTP的GET、POST、DELETE、PUT来表示对于资源的增删改查。

  • GET:读取(Read)
  • POST:新建(Create)
  • PUT:更新(Update)
  • DELETE:删除(Delete)

学习资料准备:

(1)用于测试的实体类:

public class Student {     public string StuNo { get; set; }    //学号     public string StuName { get; set; }  //姓名     public string StuSex { get; set; }   //性别 } 

(2)模拟的测试数据(编写在webapi类的构造函数中):

public static List<Student> StuList { get; set; } public ServerController() {     StuList = new List<Student>();     StuList.Add(new Student { StuNo = "001", StuName = "孙悟空", StuSex = "男" });     StuList.Add(new Student { StuNo = "002", StuName = "猪八戒", StuSex = "男" });     StuList.Add(new Student { StuNo = "003", StuName = "白骨精", StuSex = "女" }); } 

二、获取所有数据

API接口:

[HttpGet] public List<Student> GetList([FromBody]dynamic obj) { 	return StuList; } 

三、获取详情

API接口:

[HttpGet] public Student GetDetail(string id) { 	Student stu = StuList.SingleOrDefault(p => p.StuNo.Equals(id)); 	return stu; } 

四、新增数据

API接口:

[HttpPost] public IHttpActionResult Add([FromBody] Student stu) {     StuList.Add(stu);     return Json(new { msg = "添加成功!",data=StuList }); } 

五、修改数据

API接口:

[HttpPut] public IHttpActionResult Update(string id, [FromBody] Student stu) {     Student model = StuList.SingleOrDefault(p => p.StuNo.Equals(id));     if (model == null)     	return Json(new { msg = "修改的数据不存在!" });     model.StuNo = stu.StuNo;     model.StuName = stu.StuName;     model.StuSex = stu.StuSex;     return Json(new { msg = "修改成功!", data = model }); } 

六、删除数据

API接口:

[HttpDelete] public IHttpActionResult Delete(string id) {     Student model = StuList.SingleOrDefault(p => p.StuNo.Equals(id));     if (model == null)     	return Json(new { msg = "删除的数据不存在!" });     StuList.Remove(model);     return Json(new { msg = "删除成功!", data = StuList }); } 

七、特性路由

(1) 基本路由映射

API接口:

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Basic")] public IHttpActionResult GetBasic() { 	return Json(new { msg = "测试基本的特性路由!" }); } 

接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Basic 

(2) 路由映射参数

API接口:

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Param/{id}/{name}")] public IHttpActionResult Get2(string id,string name) { 	return Json(new { msg = "测试路由映射参数!",data = new { id= id,name=name } }); } 

接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Param/001/孙悟空 

(3) 多重特性路由

API接口:

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Multiple1/{id}/{name}")] [Route("api/Route/Multiple2/{id}/{name}")] public IHttpActionResult Get3(string id,string name) { 	return Json(new { msg = "测试多重特性路由!",data = new { id= id,name=name } }); } 

接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Multiple1/001/孙悟空 

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Multiple2/001/孙悟空 

(4) 缺省参数路由

API接口:

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Default/{id}/{name?}")] public IHttpActionResult Get4(string id, string name="孙悟空") {     return Json(new { msg = "测试缺省参数路由!", data = new { id = id, name = name } }); } 

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Default/{id}/{name=孙悟空}")] public IHttpActionResult Get4(string id, string name) { 	return Json(new { msg = "测试缺省参数路由!", data = new { id = id, name = name } }); } 

接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Default/001 

(5) 参数约束路由

ASP.NET Web API内置约束有下面这些:

{x:alpha} 约束大小写英文字母 {x:bool} {x:datetime} {x:decimal} {x:double} {x:float} {x:guid} {x:int} {x:length(6)} {x:length(1,20)} 约束长度范围 {x:long} {x:maxlength(10)} {x:min(10)} {x:range(10,50)} //约束值的范围 {x:regex(正则表达式)} 

可以设置多个约束:

[Route("api/Route/orders/{id:int:min(1)}")] 

API接口:

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Check/{id:range(1,100)}/{name}")] public IHttpActionResult Get5(int id, string name) { 	return Json(new { msg = "测试参数约束路由!", data = new { id = id, name = name } }); } 

接口访问地址:(以下地址可以正常访问接口)

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Check/11/孙悟空 

接口访问地址:(以下地址无法访问接口)

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Check/101/孙悟空 

(6) 通配符(*)路由变量

API接口:

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Date/{id:range(1,100)}/{name}/{*birthday}")] public IHttpActionResult Get6(int id, string name,DateTime birthday) { 	return Json(new { msg = "*使用!", data = new { id = id, name = name,birthday = birthday.ToString("yyyy年MM月dd日") } }); } 

接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Date/1/jack/1988-8-8 

接口访问地址:(此地址如果在路由中没有*则无法访问,因为程序会认为“1988/8/8”是三个参数,而不是一个参数)

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Date/1/jack/1988/8/8 

(7) 路由映射复杂参数

给实体类添加特性使其支持绑定:

[ModelBinder] public class Student { 	public string StuNo { get; set; }    //学号 	public string StuName { get; set; }  //姓名 	public string StuSex { get; set; }   //性别 } 

方案一API接口:

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Class/{stu.StuNo}/{stu.StuName}/{stu.StuSex}")] public IHttpActionResult Get7(Student stu) { 	return Json(new { msg = "路由映射复杂参数!", data = stu }); } 

方案一接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Class/001/jack/man 

方案二API接口:

[HttpGet] [Route("api/Route/Class")] public IHttpActionResult Get7(Student stu) { 	return Json(new { msg = "路由映射复杂参数!", data = stu }); } 

方案二接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Route/Class?stu.StuNo=001&stu.StuName=jack&stu.StuSex=man 

(8) 路由前缀

在控制器类上定义路由前缀:

[RoutePrefix("api/Prefix")] public class PrefixController : ApiController {  } 

路由前缀API接口:

[Route("Basic")] public IHttpActionResult Get1() { 	return Json(new { msg = "测试路由前缀!" }); } 

接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Prefix/Basic 

取消路由前缀API接口:

[Route("~/api/Cancel/Basic")]  //通过~/取消路由前缀 public IHttpActionResult Get2() { 	return Json(new { msg = "取消路由前缀!" }); } 

接口访问地址:

http://localhost:60650/api/Cancel/Basic 
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