Playwright for .NET使用

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所属分类:.NET技术
摘要

安装全局工具:在新的环境中部署:基本使用:Playwright Trace Viewer工具来追踪测试执行:

安装全局工具:

# 安装全局工具 dotnet tool install --global Microsoft.Playwright.CLI # 创建项目 dotnet new console -n Console1 cd Console1 # 安装依赖 dotnet add package Microsoft.Playwright # 用Playwright 工具安装所需的浏览器  C:UsersAdministratorAppDataLocalms-playwright playwright install # 运行项目 dotnet run

在新的环境中部署:

# 安装全局工具 dotnet tool install --global Microsoft.Playwright.CLI # 用Playwright 工具安装浏览器(要在项目部署的目录) dotnet Microsoft.Playwright.dll -- install

基本使用:

using var playwright = await Playwright.CreateAsync(); await using var browser = await playwright.Chromium.LaunchAsync(); var page = await browser.NewPageAsync(); await page.GotoAsync("https://www.baidu.com"); var title = await page.InnerTextAsync("title");

Playwright Trace Viewer工具来追踪测试执行:

using var playwright = await Playwright.CreateAsync(); await using var browser = await playwright.Chromium.LaunchAsync(new() { Headless = true }); var context = await browser.NewContextAsync(); #region 开始追踪记录 await context.Tracing.StartAsync(new() {     Title = $"qwe123",     Screenshots = true,     Snapshots = true,     Sources = true }); #endregion var page = await context.NewPageAsync();//await browser.NewPageAsync(); await page.GotoAsync("https://www.baidu.com"); //将上面链接打开后的page页面截图 保存成 screenshot.png  await page.ScreenshotAsync(new PageScreenshotOptions { Path = Path.Combine(         Environment.CurrentDirectory,         "screenshot",         $"{DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyyMMddHHmmss")}.png"         ) }); var title = await page.InnerTextAsync("title"); #region 结束追踪记录 await context.Tracing.StopAsync(new() {     Path = Path.Combine(         Environment.CurrentDirectory,         "playwright-traces",         $"{DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyyMMddHHmmss")}.zip"         ) }); #endregion

Playwright Trace Viewer工具记录多个追踪(trace chunk):

using var playwright = await Playwright.CreateAsync(); await using var browser = await playwright.Chromium.LaunchAsync(new() { Headless = true }); var context = await browser.NewContextAsync(); #region 开始追踪记录 await context.Tracing.StartAsync(new() {     Title = $"qwe123",     Screenshots = true,     Snapshots = true,     Sources = true }); #endregion  #region 开始追踪记录 await context.Tracing.StartChunkAsync(new() {     Title = $"qwe123" }); #endregion  var page = await context.NewPageAsync();//await browser.NewPageAsync(); await page.GotoAsync("https://www.baidu.com"); //将上面链接打开后的page页面截图 保存成 screenshot.png  await page.ScreenshotAsync(new PageScreenshotOptions { Path = Path.Combine(         Environment.CurrentDirectory,         "screenshot",         $"{DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyyMMddHHmmss")}.png"         ) }); var title = await page.InnerTextAsync("title");  #region 结束追踪记录 await context.Tracing.StopChunkAsync(new() {     Path = Path.Combine(         Environment.CurrentDirectory,         "playwright-traces",         $"{DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyyMMddHHmmss")}1.zip"         ) }); #endregion  #region 开始追踪记录 await context.Tracing.StartChunkAsync(new() {     Title = $"qwe1234" }); #endregion await page.GotoAsync("https://www.baidu.com/"); // 等待页面加载完成 await page.WaitForLoadStateAsync(LoadState.NetworkIdle); await page.GetByRole(AriaRole.Link, new() { Name = "登录" }).ClickAsync(); await page.GetByPlaceholder("手机号/用户名/邮箱").ClickAsync(); await page.GetByPlaceholder("手机号/用户名/邮箱").FillAsync("123456"); await page.GetByPlaceholder("密码").ClickAsync(); await page.GetByPlaceholder("密码").FillAsync("qwe123"); await page.GetByRole(AriaRole.Checkbox, new() { Name = "阅读并接受" }).CheckAsync(); await page.GetByRole(AriaRole.Button, new() { Name = "登录" }).ClickAsync(); #region 结束追踪记录  await context.Tracing.StopChunkAsync(new() {     Path = Path.Combine(         Environment.CurrentDirectory,         "playwright-traces",         $"{DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyyMMddHHmmss")}2.zip"         ) }); #endregion

 

本地打开跟踪文件:

playwright show-trace 12344.zip

 

开启Playwright录制操作自动生成代码脚本:

playwright codege‍

 

Playwright发布与部署:

部署模式选择“独立”,可以不依赖框架运行
另一台机器上运行我们的程序之前,需要在这台机器上重新安装 Playwright,但无需安装 dotnet 框架或运行时。
运行发布文件夹下的安装命令:

.playwrightnodewin32_x64playwright.cmd install

常用操作:

// 创建Chromium浏览器实例 await using var browser = await playwright.Chromium.LaunchAsync(new BrowserTypeLaunchOptions() {     Headless = false, // 关闭无头模式(有界面)     SlowMo = 50, // 放慢执行速度     Channel = "chrome", // 指定采用chrome浏览器类型     Devtools = true, // 启用开发者工具     ChromiumSandbox = false, // 关闭浏览器沙盒     ExecutablePath = string.Empty, // 不指定浏览器可执行文件位置,会自动寻找 ms-playwright 下载的浏览器     Args = new[] { "--enable-automation=true", "--disable-blink-features=AutomationControlled" }, // 防止selenium被检测 }); // 浏览器上下文 await using var context = await browser.NewContextAsync(new BrowserNewContextOptions {     ViewportSize = new ViewportSize     {         Width = 1536, // 1920 * 0.8         Height = 864, // 1080 * 0.8     }, // 窗口大小     Locale = "zh-CN", // 指定语言(区域)     TimezoneId = "Asia/Shanghai", // 指定时区 }); // 存储当前会话 await context.StorageStateAsync(new BrowserContextStorageStateOptions {     Path = "state.json" }); // 使用会话,当state.json文件不存在时会报错 await browser.NewContextAsync(new BrowserNewContextOptions {     StorageStatePath = "state.json" }); // 等待登录按钮出现 await page.WaitForSelectorAsync(".login"); // 点击登录 await page.ClickAsync(".login"); // 查找页面元素 可匹配到 <div class="title-text-n4df3g8">美食</div> var locator = page.Locator(“div[class^='title-text-']:text-is('美食')”); // 获取匹配到元素的个数 var count = await locator.CountAsync(); // 鼠标悬停在元素上 await page.HoverAsync("#title"); // 执行js获取页面地址 var href = await page.EvaluateAsync<string>("document.location.href"); // 定位器 var element = page.Locator(".passMod_dialog-close-btn"); // 等待1秒 await Task.Delay(1000); await element.ClickAsync();  // 显式等待 设定的超时时间内,仍然没有通过定位器等待到目标元素,将会抛出异常 await page.GotoAsync("https://stackoverflow.com/"); var elelment = page.Locator("id=noscript-warning"); await elelment.WaitForAsync(); var text = await elelment.InnerTextAsync(new LocatorInnerTextOptions { Timeout = 10 });  // RunAndWaitForPopupAsync 方法可以帮助我们执行操作并等待弹出窗口出现 await page.GotoAsync("https://www.baidu.com/"); await page.RunAndWaitForPopupAsync(async () => {     await page.ClickAsync("text=新闻"); },     new PageRunAndWaitForPopupOptions     {         Predicate = (page) =>         {             return page.Url.Contains("news.baidu.com");         }     });  // RunAndWaitForRequestAsync/RunAndWaitForResponseAsync两个方法可以通过传入URL地址或表达式来过滤等待的请求或响应,从而实现更加精细的控制。方法都是阻塞式的。也就是说,如果我们等待的情况一直未出现,后续的代码将不会执行。
// 在某些情况下,我们只需要在情况出现时进行一些操作,即使情况不出现也不应该影响整体的运行。这时,我们可以使用监听事件来实现。
await page.RunAndWaitForRequestAsync(async () => { await page.GotoAsync("https://stackoverflow.com/", new PageGotoOptions{ WaitUntil = WaitUntilState.Commit}); }, request => { Console.WriteLine(request.Url); //return request.Url.Contains("jquery.min.js"); return request.Url.Contains("stacks.min.js"); }); await page.RunAndWaitForResponseAsync(async () => { await page.ClickAsync("text='Login'"); }, response => response.Url.Contains("users/login") ); // 当页面发起的请求失败时触发 page.RequestFailed += (sender, request) => { Console.WriteLine($"请求{request.Url}发生错误{request.Failure}"); }; // 当页面发起的请求完成时触发 page.RequestFinished += (sender, request) => { Console.WriteLine($"请求{request.Url}发生错111111误{request.Failure}"); }; await page.GotoAsync("https://baidu.com/"); // Close:当页面关闭时触发 // Console:当控制台输出时触发 // Crash:当页面崩溃时触发。例如,试图分配太多内存,浏览器页面可能会崩溃。 // Dialog:当 JavaScript 对话框出现时触发。例如,alert、prompt、confirm等。 // DOMContentLoaded:当页面的 DOMContentLoaded 事件触发时触发 // Download:当下载开始时触发 // FileChooser:当文件选择对话框出现时触发 // FrameAttached:当 frame 连接到页面时触发 // FrameDetached:当 frame 与页面分离时触发 // FrameNavigated:当 frame 导航到一个新的 url 时触发 // Load: 当页面的 load 事件触发时触发 // PageError:当页面内发生未捕获异常时触发 // Popup:当页面弹出新的窗口时触发 // Request:当页面发起一个新的请求时触发 // RequestFailed:当页面发起的请求失败时触发 // RequestFinished:当页面发起的请求完成时触发 // Response:当页面收到一个新的响应时触发 // 输入搜索关键字 await page.TypeAsync("input[name='q1']", "关键字"); // 点击page按钮跳转到page1 var page1 = await page.RunAndWaitForPopupAsync(async () => { // 点击搜索 await page.ClickAsync(".advanced-search-btn"); }); // 检查文本框内容 var handleInput = await page1.WaitForSelectorAsync("#kw"); var text = await handleInput.GetAttributeAsync("value"); // 输入操作 await page.Locator("#kw").FillAsync("1212121"); // 点击操作 await page.Locator("#kw").ClickAsync(); // 单选(选中,已选中状态下无效) await page.Locator(".check1").SetCheckedAsync(true); await page.Locator(".Volvo").CheckAsync(); // 复选框(选中,已选中状态下无效) await page.Locator("#checkbox [type='checkbox']:nth-child(7)").CheckAsync(); await page.Locator("#checkbox [type='checkbox']:nth-child(7)").SetCheckedAsync(true); // 下拉框操作 // 选择下拉框中的选项 await page.SelectOptionAsync("select[name='country']", "Canada"); // 通过value值选择 await page.Locator("[name='select']").SelectOptionAsync("opel"); // 通过可见文本选择 await page.Locator("[name='select']").SelectOptionAsync(new SelectOptionValue { Label = "blue" }); // 多个选定项目 await page.GetByLabel("Choose multiple colors").SelectOptionAsync(new[] { "blue", "green", "red" }); // 常规单击 await page.Locator("#mouse2").ClickAsync(); // 单击 await page.GetByRole(AriaRole.Button).ClickAsync(); // 双击 await page.GetByText("Item").DblClickAsync(); // 右击 await page.GetByText("Item").ClickAsync(new() { Button = MouseButton.Right }); // Shift + click await page.GetByText("Item").ClickAsync(new() { Modifiers = new[] { KeyboardModifier.Shift } }); // Ctrl + click or Windows and Linux // Meta + click on macOS await page.GetByText("Item").ClickAsync(new() { Modifiers = new[] { KeyboardModifier.ControlOrMeta } }); // Hover over element await page.GetByText("Item").HoverAsync(); // Click the top left corner await page.GetByText("Item").ClickAsync(new() { Position = new Position { X = 0, Y = 0 } }); //上传一个文件 await page.Locator("#load").SetInputFilesAsync("demo.md"); // 上传多个文件 await page.Locator("#load").SetInputFilesAsync(new[] { "file1.txt", "file12.txt" }); // 上传文件 找到文件上传输入框 var fileInput = await page.QuerySelectorAsync("input[type='file']"); string filePath = "path/to/your/file.txt"; // 你要上传的文件路径 await fileInput.SetInputFilesAsync(filePath); // 提取页面标题 string title = await page.TitleAsync(); title = await page.InnerTextAsync("title"); Console.WriteLine("Page title: " + title); // 提取页面 URL string url = page.Url; Console.WriteLine("Page URL: " + url); // 提取特定元素的文本内容 var elementText = await page.EvaluateAsync<string>("document.querySelector('h1').textContent"); Console.WriteLine("Header text: " + elementText); // 提取页面中的链接 var links = await page.QuerySelectorAllAsync("a"); foreach (var link in links) { var href = await link.GetAttributeAsync("href"); Console.WriteLine("Link: " + href); } // 等待表格加载完毕 await page.WaitForSelectorAsync("table"); // 获取表格内容 var tableHtml = await page.InnerHTMLAsync("table"); // 使用正则表达式提取表格数据 var regex = new Regex(@"<tr>(.*?)</tr>"); var matches = regex.Matches(tableHtml); foreach (Match match in matches) { // 这里可以根据表格结构和需要自行解析数据 var rowHtml = match.Groups[1].Value; Console.WriteLine("Row HTML: " + rowHtml); } // 等待页面加载完成 await page.WaitForLoadStateAsync(LoadState.NetworkIdle); // 等待页面跳转 await page.WaitForNavigationAsync(); // RunAndWaitForFileChooserAsync 方法可以帮助我们在执行操作的同时等待文件选择器的出现。 await page.GotoAsync("https://image.baidu.com/"); await page.RunAndWaitForFileChooserAsync(async () => { await page.ClickAsync("id=sttb"); await page.ClickAsync("id=uploadImg"); }, new PageRunAndWaitForFileChooserOptions { Predicate = (fileChooser) => { return !fileChooser.IsMultiple; } }); // RunAndWaitForNavigationAsync 方法可以帮助我们执行操作并等待页面导航完成 await page.GotoAsync("https://stackoverflow.com/"); await page.RunAndWaitForNavigationAsync(async () => { await page.ClickAsync("text='Log in'"); }, new PageRunAndWaitForNavigationOptions { UrlFunc = (url) => { return url.Contains("users/login"); }, WaitUntil = WaitUntilState.Commit }); // JavaScript互操作 await page.ExposeFunctionAsync("sha256", (string input) => { return Convert.ToBase64String( SHA256.Create().ComputeHash(System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(input))); }); await page.SetContentAsync(@"<script> async function onClick() { document.querySelector('div').textContent = await window.sha256('PLAYWRIGHT'); } </script> <button onclick='onClick()'>Click me</button> <div></div>" ); await page.ClickAsync("button"); // Locator(定位器) // 按 id 查找 page.Locator("#su"); page.Locator("id=su"); // 按文本查找 page.Locator("text=hao123"); page.Locator("'hao123'"); page.Locator("text=/^ha\w+23$/i"); // 按 CSS 查找 page.Locator("input[value='百度一下']"); page.Locator("input:text('百度')"); //按 XPath 查找 page.Locator("//*[@id="su"]"); // BrowserContext(浏览器上下文) var browserContext1 = await browser.NewContextAsync(); var cookie1 = await GetCookie(browserContext1); Console.WriteLine(cookie1); var browserContext2 = await browser.NewContextAsync(); var cookie2 = await GetCookie(browserContext2); Console.WriteLine(cookie2); static async Task<string> GetCookie(IBrowserContext browserContext) { var page = await browserContext.NewPageAsync(); await page.GotoAsync("https://www.baidu.com"); var cookies = await browserContext.CookiesAsync(); return cookies.First(p => p.Name == "BAIDUID").Value; } // Frame(框架) foreach (var frame in page.Frames) Console.WriteLine($"{frame.Url.Split('/').Last()}"); Console.WriteLine(""); Console.WriteLine("显示 Frame 嵌套树:"); DumpFrameTree(page.MainFrame, string.Empty); static void DumpFrameTree(IFrame frame, string indent) { Console.WriteLine($"{indent}{frame.Url.Split('/').Last()}"); foreach (var child in frame.ChildFrames) DumpFrameTree(child, indent + " "); }

 

设置playwright环境的默认目录:

Environment.SetEnvironmentVariable("PLAYWRIGHT_BROWSERS_PATH", Path.Combine(AppDomain.CurrentDomain.BaseDirectory, "ms-playwright")); //初始化playwright环境,chromium, chrome, chrome-beta, msedge, msedge-beta, msedge-dev, firefox, webkit 可选 Microsoft.Playwright.Program.Main(new[] { "install", "chromium" });