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C#串口开发之SerialPort类封装

目录

SerialPort类

微软在.NET中对串口通讯进行了封装,我们可以在.net2.0及以上版本开发时直接使用SerialPort类对串口进行读写操作。
为操作方便,本文对SerialPort类做了一些封装,暂时取名为SerialPortClient

SerialPort类的属性主要包括:

  • 串口名称(PortName)
  • 波特率(BaudRate)
  • 数据位 DataBits
  • 停止位 StopBits
  • 奇偶校验 Parity

SerialPort类的事件主要包括:

  • DataReceived:用于异步接收串口数据事件
  • ErrorReceived:错误处理事件

SerialPort类的方法主要包括:Open();Close();Read();Write()、DiscardInBuffer()、DiscardOutBuffer()等

参数封装

波特率、数据位这些参数不是系统内置的枚举类型,为方便实际操作需构造波特率、数据位这两个枚举对象。

    #region 波特率、数据位的枚举     /// <summary>     /// 串口数据位列表(5,6,7,8)     /// </summary>     public enum DataBits : int     {                 Five = 5,                 Six = 6,                 Sevent = 7,                 Eight = 8     }      /// <summary>     /// 串口波特率列表。     /// 75,110,150,300,600,1200,2400,4800,9600,14400,19200,28800,38400,56000,57600,     /// 115200,128000,230400,256000     /// </summary>     public enum BaudRates : int     {         BR_75 = 75,         BR_110 = 110,         BR_150 = 150,         BR_300 = 300,         BR_600 = 600,         BR_1200 = 1200,         BR_2400 = 2400,         BR_4800 = 4800,         BR_9600 = 9600,         BR_14400 = 14400,         BR_19200 = 19200,         BR_28800 = 28800,         BR_38400 = 38400,         BR_56000 = 56000,         BR_57600 = 57600,         BR_115200 = 115200,         BR_128000 = 128000,         BR_230400 = 230400,         BR_256000 = 256000     }      #endregion 

控件操作封装

对常用的参数下拉列表绑定做一个封装,该操作为封装类的静态方法。
为兼容第三方控件使用IList接口,不直接使用ComboBox类型作为参数

        #region 静态方法         /// <summary>         /// 设置串口号         /// </summary>         /// <param name="obj">需要绑定的项的集合(如:ComboBox中项的集合ComboBox.Items)</param>         public static void SetPortNameValues(IList obj)         {             obj.Clear();                         try             {                                 foreach (string str in SerialPort.GetPortNames())                 {                     obj.Add(str);                 }             }             catch (Exception e)             {                 Console.WriteLine("未能查询到串口名称——"+e.ToString());                             }                      }          /// <summary>         /// 设置波特率         /// </summary>         /// <param name="obj">需要绑定的项的集合(如:ComboBox中项的集合ComboBox.Items)</param>         public static void SetBauRateValues(IList obj)         {             obj.Clear();             foreach (BaudRates rate in Enum.GetValues(typeof(BaudRates)))             {                 obj.Add(((int)rate).ToString());             }         }          /// <summary>         /// 设置数据位         /// </summary>         /// <param name="obj">需要绑定的项的集合(如:ComboBox中项的集合ComboBox.Items)</param>         public static void SetDataBitsValues(IList obj)         {             obj.Clear();             foreach (DataBits databit in Enum.GetValues(typeof(DataBits)))             {                 obj.Add(((int)databit).ToString());             }         }          /// <summary>         /// 设置校验位列表         /// </summary>         /// <param name="obj">需要绑定的项的集合(如:ComboBox中项的集合ComboBox.Items)</param>         public static void SetParityValues(IList obj)         {             obj.Clear();             foreach (string str in Enum.GetNames(typeof(Parity)))             {                 obj.Add(str);             }         }          /// <summary>         /// 设置停止位         /// </summary>         /// <param name="obj">需要绑定的项的集合(如:ComboBox中项的集合ComboBox.Items)</param>         public static void SetStopBitValues(IList obj)         {             obj.Clear();             foreach (string str in Enum.GetNames(typeof(StopBits)))             {                 obj.Add(str);             }         }         #endregion 

SerialPortClient类实现

该部分代码是SerialPortClient类非静态操作部分的实现,完整的类实现需要加上上面的控件操作封装的实现代码,具体请参照Demo源码。

        #region 变量属性         public event Action<List<byte>> DataReceived;         public event SerialErrorReceivedEventHandler ErrorReceived;           private SerialPort comPort = new SerialPort();         private string portName = "COM1";//串口号,默认COM1         private BaudRates baudRate = BaudRates.BR_9600;//波特率         private Parity parity = Parity.None;//校验位         private StopBits stopBits = StopBits.One;//停止位         private DataBits dataBits = DataBits.Eight;//数据位                  /// <summary>         /// 串口号         /// </summary>         public string PortName         {             get { return portName; }             set { portName = value; }         }          /// <summary>         /// 波特率         /// </summary>         public BaudRates BaudRate         {             get { return baudRate; }             set { baudRate = value; }         }          /// <summary>         /// 奇偶校验位         /// </summary>         public Parity Parity         {             get { return parity; }             set { parity = value; }         }          /// <summary>         /// 数据位         /// </summary>         public DataBits DataBits         {             get { return dataBits; }             set { dataBits = value; }         }          /// <summary>         /// 停止位         /// </summary>         public StopBits StopBits         {             get { return stopBits; }             set { stopBits = value; }         }                      #endregion          #region 构造函数         /// <summary>         /// 无参构造函数         /// </summary>         public SerialPortClient()         {             BoundEvents();         }          void BoundEvents()         {             comPort.DataReceived += new SerialDataReceivedEventHandler(comPort_DataReceived);             comPort.ErrorReceived += new SerialErrorReceivedEventHandler(comPort_ErrorReceived);         }          /// <summary>         /// 参数构造函数(使用枚举参数构造)         /// </summary>         /// <param name="baud">波特率</param>         /// <param name="par">奇偶校验位</param>         /// <param name="sBits">停止位</param>         /// <param name="dBits">数据位</param>         /// <param name="name">串口号</param>         public SerialPortClient(string name, BaudRates baud, Parity par, DataBits dBits, StopBits sBits)         {             this.portName = name;             this.baudRate = baud;             this.parity = par;             this.dataBits = dBits;             this.stopBits = sBits;             BoundEvents();         }          /// <summary>         /// 参数构造函数(使用字符串参数构造)         /// </summary>         /// <param name="baud">波特率</param>         /// <param name="par">奇偶校验位</param>         /// <param name="sBits">停止位</param>         /// <param name="dBits">数据位</param>         /// <param name="name">串口号</param>         public SerialPortClient(string name, string baud, string par, string dBits, string sBits)         {             this.portName = name;             this.baudRate = (BaudRates)Enum.Parse(typeof(BaudRates), baud);             this.parity = (Parity)Enum.Parse(typeof(Parity), par);             this.dataBits = (DataBits)Enum.Parse(typeof(DataBits), dBits);             this.stopBits = (StopBits)Enum.Parse(typeof(StopBits), sBits);             BoundEvents();        }         #endregion          #region 事件处理函数         /// <summary>         /// 数据仓库         /// </summary>         List<byte> datapool = new List<byte>();//存放接收的所有字节         /// <summary>         /// 数据接收处理         /// </summary>         void comPort_DataReceived(object sender, SerialDataReceivedEventArgs e)         {             if (comPort.IsOpen)     //判断是否打开串口             {                  Byte[] receivedData = new Byte[comPort.BytesToRead];        //创建接收字节数组                 comPort.Read(receivedData, 0, receivedData.Length);         //读取数据                  //触发整条记录的处理                 if (DataReceived != null)                 {                     datapool.AddRange(receivedData);                                     DataReceived(datapool);                 }                              }             else             {                 Console.WriteLine("请打开某个串口", "Error");             }          }         /// <summary>         /// 错误处理函数         /// </summary>         void comPort_ErrorReceived(object sender, SerialErrorReceivedEventArgs e)         {             if (ErrorReceived != null)             {                 ErrorReceived(sender, e);             }         }         #endregion          #region 串口关闭/打开         /// <summary>         /// 端口是否已经打开         /// </summary>         public bool IsOpen         {             get             {                 return comPort.IsOpen;             }         }          /// <summary>         /// 打开端口         /// </summary>         /// <returns></returns>         public void Open()         {             if (comPort.IsOpen) comPort.Close();              comPort.PortName = portName;             comPort.BaudRate = (int)baudRate;             comPort.Parity = parity;             comPort.DataBits = (int)dataBits;             comPort.StopBits = stopBits;              comPort.Open();         }          /// <summary>         /// 关闭端口         /// </summary>         public void Close()         {             if (comPort.IsOpen) comPort.Close();         }          /// <summary>         /// 丢弃来自串行驱动程序的接收和发送缓冲区的数据         /// </summary>         public void DiscardBuffer()         {             comPort.DiscardInBuffer();             comPort.DiscardOutBuffer();         }         #endregion          #region 写入数据         /// <summary>         /// 写入数据         /// </summary>         /// <param name="buffer"></param>         public void Write(byte[] buffer, int offset, int count)          {             if (!(comPort.IsOpen)) comPort.Open();             comPort.Write(buffer,offset, count);         }          /// <summary>         /// 写入数据         /// </summary>         /// <param name="buffer">写入端口的字节数组</param>         public void Write(byte[] buffer)         {             if (!(comPort.IsOpen)) comPort.Open();             comPort.Write(buffer, 0, buffer.Length);         }         #endregion 

SerialPortClient类使用

SerialPortClient类使用很简单,主要分为初始化下拉列表、初始化串口(绑定数据接收、错误处理事件)两步,在窗体加载事件中调用即可。代码如下:

        //全局变量         SerialPortClient portClient = new SerialPortClient();         private void InitPort()          {             portClient.DataReceived+=new Action<List<byte>>(datapool=>             {                 //匹配数据帧,此处以0xea 0xeb为帧头、0xfa 0xfb为帧尾                 //实际通讯协议应该更复杂                 while (true)                 {                     if (datapool.Count <4) break;                     if ((datapool[0] == 0xea) && (datapool[0] == 0xeb))                      {                         datapool.RemoveAt(0);                         continue;                     }                     int index = -1;//正确作法是记住上次最末尾的索引,避免重复匹配                     for (int i = 0; i < datapool.Count-1; i++)                     {                         if (datapool[i] == 0xfa && datapool[i + 1] == 0xfb)                          {                              index = i;                             break;                         }                     }                     if (index != -1)                     {                         byte[] data = datapool.GetRange(0, index + 2).ToArray();                         datapool.RemoveRange(0, index + 2);                         string msg = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(data,2,data.Length-4);                         this.BeginInvoke(new Action(() => { textBox_Recive.Text = msg; }));                     }                     else break;                 }              });         }         private void InitCmb()         {             //绑定端口号             SerialPortClient.SetPortNameValues(comboBox_Com.Items);             comboBox_Com.DropDownStyle = ComboBoxStyle.DropDownList;             comboBox_Com.SelectedIndexChanged += new EventHandler((obj, e) =>              {                  if (comboBox_Com.SelectedItem!=null)                  {                     portClient.PortName = comboBox_Com.SelectedItem.ToString();                  }             });             comboBox_Com.SelectedIndex = 0;              //波特率             SerialPortClient.SetBauRateValues(comboBox_BaudRates.Items);             comboBox_BaudRates.DropDownStyle = ComboBoxStyle.DropDownList;             comboBox_BaudRates.SelectedIndexChanged += new EventHandler((obj, e) =>              {                 if (comboBox_BaudRates.SelectedItem != null)                 {                     portClient.BaudRate = (BaudRates)Enum.Parse(typeof(BaudRates), comboBox_BaudRates.SelectedItem.ToString());                                     }             });             comboBox_BaudRates.SelectedIndex = 9;              //数据位             SerialPortClient.SetDataBitsValues(comboBox_DataBits.Items);             comboBox_DataBits.DropDownStyle = ComboBoxStyle.DropDownList;             comboBox_DataBits.SelectedIndexChanged += new EventHandler((obj, e) =>             {                 if (comboBox_DataBits.SelectedItem != null)                 {                     portClient.DataBits = (DataBits)Enum.Parse(typeof(DataBits), comboBox_DataBits.SelectedItem.ToString());                 }             });             comboBox_DataBits.SelectedIndex = 3;              //校验位             SerialPortClient.SetParityValues(comboBox_Parity.Items);             comboBox_Parity.DropDownStyle = ComboBoxStyle.DropDownList;             comboBox_Parity.SelectedIndexChanged += new EventHandler((obj, e) =>             {                 if (comboBox_Parity.SelectedItem != null)                 {                     portClient.Parity = (Parity)Enum.Parse(typeof(Parity), comboBox_Parity.SelectedItem.ToString());                 }             });             comboBox_Parity.SelectedIndex = 0;              //停止位             SerialPortClient.SetStopBitValues(comboBox_StopBits.Items);             comboBox_StopBits.DropDownStyle = ComboBoxStyle.DropDownList;             comboBox_StopBits.SelectedIndexChanged += new EventHandler((obj, e) =>             {                 if (comboBox_StopBits.SelectedItem != null)                 {                     portClient.StopBits = (StopBits)Enum.Parse(typeof(StopBits), comboBox_StopBits.SelectedItem.ToString());                 }             });             comboBox_StopBits.SelectedIndex = 1;         } 

串口的打开、关闭、状态显示等操作请查看文章末尾的Demo源码。

测试Demo

C#串口开发之SerialPort类封装
Demo下载:https://files-cdn.cnblogs.com/files/timefiles/SerialPortDemo.rar

参考文章

C#开发串口总结,并提炼串口辅助类到公用类库中——博客园

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