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C# 9 新特性 — record 解读


C# 9 新特性 — record 解读

Intro

C# 9 中引入了 recordrecord 是一个特殊类,用它来实现 model 在有些情况下会非常的好用

Sample

record RecordPerson {     public string Name { get; init; }      public int Age { get; init; } }  record RecordPerson2(string Name, int Age);  public static void MainTest() {     var p1 = new RecordPerson()     {         Name = "Tom",         Age = 12,     };     Console.WriteLine(p1);      var p2 = p1 with { Age = 10 };     Console.WriteLine(p2);      var p3 = new RecordPerson() { Name = "Tom", Age = 12 };     Console.WriteLine(p3);     Console.WriteLine($"p1 Equals p3 =:{p1 == p3}");      RecordPerson2 p4 = new("Tom", 12);     Console.WriteLine(p4); } 

这里的示例,用 record 声明了两个 model,第二个 model 声明的时候使用了简化的写法,

record RecordPerson2(string Name, int Age); 这样的声明意味着,构造方法有两个参数,分别是 string Nameint Age,并对应着两个属性,属性的声明方式和 RecordPerson 一样 public string Name { get; init; } 都是一个 get 一个 init

对于 record 支持一个 with 表达式,来修改某几个属性的值,这对于有很多属性都相同的场景来说是及其方便的,来看一下上面示例的输出结果

C# 9 新特性 — record 解读

What inside

那么 record 内部发生了什么呢,我们来反编译看一下,我们看一下使用 DnSpy 反编译的结果

RecordPerson

private class RecordPerson : IEquatable<RecordSample.RecordPerson> {     // Token: 0x17000007 RID: 7     // (get) Token: 0x06000027 RID: 39 RVA: 0x000025F4 File Offset: 0x000007F4     [Nullable(1)]     protected virtual Type EqualityContract     {         [NullableContext(1)]         [CompilerGenerated]         get         {             return typeof(RecordSample.RecordPerson);         }     }      // Token: 0x17000008 RID: 8     // (get) Token: 0x06000028 RID: 40 RVA: 0x00002600 File Offset: 0x00000800     // (set) Token: 0x06000029 RID: 41 RVA: 0x00002608 File Offset: 0x00000808     public string Name     {         [CompilerGenerated]         get         {             return this.<Name>k__BackingField;         }         [CompilerGenerated]         set         {             this.<Name>k__BackingField = value;         }     }      // Token: 0x17000009 RID: 9     // (get) Token: 0x0600002A RID: 42 RVA: 0x00002611 File Offset: 0x00000811     // (set) Token: 0x0600002B RID: 43 RVA: 0x00002619 File Offset: 0x00000819     public int Age     {         [CompilerGenerated]         get         {             return this.<Age>k__BackingField;         }         [CompilerGenerated]         set         {             this.<Age>k__BackingField = value;         }     }      // Token: 0x0600002C RID: 44 RVA: 0x00002624 File Offset: 0x00000824     public override string ToString()     {         StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder();         stringBuilder.Append("RecordPerson");         stringBuilder.Append(" { ");         if (this.PrintMembers(stringBuilder))         {             stringBuilder.Append(" ");         }         stringBuilder.Append("}");         return stringBuilder.ToString();     }      // Token: 0x0600002D RID: 45 RVA: 0x00002678 File Offset: 0x00000878     [NullableContext(1)]     protected virtual bool PrintMembers(StringBuilder builder)     {         builder.Append("Name");         builder.Append(" = ");         builder.Append(this.Name);         builder.Append(", ");         builder.Append("Age");         builder.Append(" = ");         builder.Append(this.Age.ToString());         return true;     }      // Token: 0x0600002E RID: 46 RVA: 0x000026EA File Offset: 0x000008EA     [NullableContext(2)]     public static bool operator !=(RecordSample.RecordPerson r1, RecordSample.RecordPerson r2)     {         return !(r1 == r2);     }      // Token: 0x0600002F RID: 47 RVA: 0x000026F6 File Offset: 0x000008F6     [NullableContext(2)]     public static bool operator ==(RecordSample.RecordPerson r1, RecordSample.RecordPerson r2)     {         return r1 == r2 || (r1 != null && r1.Equals(r2));     }      // Token: 0x06000030 RID: 48 RVA: 0x0000270C File Offset: 0x0000090C     public override int GetHashCode()     {         return (EqualityComparer<Type>.Default.GetHashCode(this.EqualityContract) * -1521134295 + EqualityComparer<string>.Default.GetHashCode(this.<Name>k__BackingField)) * -1521134295 + EqualityComparer<int>.Default.GetHashCode(this.<Age>k__BackingField);     }      // Token: 0x06000031 RID: 49 RVA: 0x0000274C File Offset: 0x0000094C     [NullableContext(2)]     public override bool Equals(object obj)     {         return this.Equals(obj as RecordSample.RecordPerson);     }      // Token: 0x06000032 RID: 50 RVA: 0x0000275C File Offset: 0x0000095C     [NullableContext(2)]     public virtual bool Equals(RecordSample.RecordPerson other)     {         return other != null && this.EqualityContract == other.EqualityContract && EqualityComparer<string>.Default.Equals(this.<Name>k__BackingField, other.<Name>k__BackingField) && EqualityComparer<int>.Default.Equals(this.<Age>k__BackingField, other.<Age>k__BackingField);     }      // Token: 0x06000033 RID: 51 RVA: 0x000027B0 File Offset: 0x000009B0     [NullableContext(1)]     public virtual RecordSample.RecordPerson <Clone>$()     {         return new RecordSample.RecordPerson(this);     }      // Token: 0x06000034 RID: 52 RVA: 0x000027B8 File Offset: 0x000009B8     protected RecordPerson([Nullable(1)] RecordSample.RecordPerson original)     {         this.Name = original.<Name>k__BackingField;         this.Age = original.<Age>k__BackingField;     }      // Token: 0x06000035 RID: 53 RVA: 0x000027D9 File Offset: 0x000009D9     public RecordPerson()     {     }      // Token: 0x0400000C RID: 12     [CompilerGenerated]     [DebuggerBrowsable(DebuggerBrowsableState.Never)]     private readonly string <Name>k__BackingField;      // Token: 0x0400000D RID: 13     [CompilerGenerated]     [DebuggerBrowsable(DebuggerBrowsableState.Never)]     private readonly int <Age>k__BackingField; } 

从上面的反编译结果可以看的出来,record 其实就是一个 class,只是编译器会帮我们做一些事情,编译器帮我们做了哪些事呢?

  • 实现了基于属性值的相等性比较,不再使用默认的引用,并且重写了 ==/!= operator 和 GetHashCode
  • 为了方便调试,重写了 ToString 方法,也提供了 PrintMembers 方法来实现比较方便只显示某些比较重要的参数
  • 实现了 EqualityContract 方法来指定类型比较的类型,默认是当前类型
  • 实现了 <Clone>$ 方法和一个特殊的构造方法,用来克隆一个对象,相当于 record 帮我们实现了一个浅复制原型模式,还是强类型的,这个方法在代码里不能直接调用,当我们使用 with 表达式的时候,编译器会调用这个方法,并对某些属性进行赋值

再来看一下 RecordPerson2

private class RecordPerson2 : IEquatable<RecordSample.RecordPerson2> {     // Token: 0x06000036 RID: 54 RVA: 0x000027E2 File Offset: 0x000009E2     public RecordPerson2(string Name, int Age)     {         this.Name = Name;         this.Age = Age;         base..ctor();     }      // Token: 0x1700000A RID: 10     // (get) Token: 0x06000037 RID: 55 RVA: 0x000027F9 File Offset: 0x000009F9     [Nullable(1)]     protected virtual Type EqualityContract     {         [NullableContext(1)]         [CompilerGenerated]         get         {             return typeof(RecordSample.RecordPerson2);         }     }      // Token: 0x1700000B RID: 11     // (get) Token: 0x06000038 RID: 56 RVA: 0x00002805 File Offset: 0x00000A05     // (set) Token: 0x06000039 RID: 57 RVA: 0x0000280D File Offset: 0x00000A0D     public string Name     {         [CompilerGenerated]         get         {             return this.<Name>k__BackingField;         }         [CompilerGenerated]         set         {             this.<Name>k__BackingField = value;         }     }      // Token: 0x1700000C RID: 12     // (get) Token: 0x0600003A RID: 58 RVA: 0x00002816 File Offset: 0x00000A16     // (set) Token: 0x0600003B RID: 59 RVA: 0x0000281E File Offset: 0x00000A1E     public int Age     {         [CompilerGenerated]         get         {             return this.<Age>k__BackingField;         }         [CompilerGenerated]         set         {             this.<Age>k__BackingField = value;         }     }      // Token: 0x0600003C RID: 60 RVA: 0x00002828 File Offset: 0x00000A28     public override string ToString()     {         StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder();         stringBuilder.Append("RecordPerson2");         stringBuilder.Append(" { ");         if (this.PrintMembers(stringBuilder))         {             stringBuilder.Append(" ");         }         stringBuilder.Append("}");         return stringBuilder.ToString();     }      // Token: 0x0600003D RID: 61 RVA: 0x0000287C File Offset: 0x00000A7C     [NullableContext(1)]     protected virtual bool PrintMembers(StringBuilder builder)     {         builder.Append("Name");         builder.Append(" = ");         builder.Append(this.Name);         builder.Append(", ");         builder.Append("Age");         builder.Append(" = ");         builder.Append(this.Age.ToString());         return true;     }      // Token: 0x0600003E RID: 62 RVA: 0x000028EE File Offset: 0x00000AEE     [NullableContext(2)]     public static bool operator !=(RecordSample.RecordPerson2 r1, RecordSample.RecordPerson2 r2)     {         return !(r1 == r2);     }      // Token: 0x0600003F RID: 63 RVA: 0x000028FA File Offset: 0x00000AFA     [NullableContext(2)]     public static bool operator ==(RecordSample.RecordPerson2 r1, RecordSample.RecordPerson2 r2)     {         return r1 == r2 || (r1 != null && r1.Equals(r2));     }      // Token: 0x06000040 RID: 64 RVA: 0x00002910 File Offset: 0x00000B10     public override int GetHashCode()     {         return (EqualityComparer<Type>.Default.GetHashCode(this.EqualityContract) * -1521134295 + EqualityComparer<string>.Default.GetHashCode(this.<Name>k__BackingField)) * -1521134295 + EqualityComparer<int>.Default.GetHashCode(this.<Age>k__BackingField);     }      // Token: 0x06000041 RID: 65 RVA: 0x00002950 File Offset: 0x00000B50     [NullableContext(2)]     public override bool Equals(object obj)     {         return this.Equals(obj as RecordSample.RecordPerson2);     }      // Token: 0x06000042 RID: 66 RVA: 0x00002960 File Offset: 0x00000B60     [NullableContext(2)]     public virtual bool Equals(RecordSample.RecordPerson2 other)     {         return other != null && this.EqualityContract == other.EqualityContract && EqualityComparer<string>.Default.Equals(this.<Name>k__BackingField, other.<Name>k__BackingField) && EqualityComparer<int>.Default.Equals(this.<Age>k__BackingField, other.<Age>k__BackingField);     }      // Token: 0x06000043 RID: 67 RVA: 0x000029B4 File Offset: 0x00000BB4     [NullableContext(1)]     public virtual RecordSample.RecordPerson2 <Clone>$()     {         return new RecordSample.RecordPerson2(this);     }      // Token: 0x06000044 RID: 68 RVA: 0x000029BC File Offset: 0x00000BBC     protected RecordPerson2([Nullable(1)] RecordSample.RecordPerson2 original)     {         this.Name = original.<Name>k__BackingField;         this.Age = original.<Age>k__BackingField;     }      // Token: 0x06000045 RID: 69 RVA: 0x000029DD File Offset: 0x00000BDD     public void Deconstruct(out string Name, out int Age)     {         Name = this.Name;         Age = this.Age;     }      // Token: 0x0400000E RID: 14     [CompilerGenerated]     [DebuggerBrowsable(DebuggerBrowsableState.Never)]     private readonly string <Name>k__BackingField;      // Token: 0x0400000F RID: 15     [CompilerGenerated]     [DebuggerBrowsable(DebuggerBrowsableState.Never)]     private readonly int <Age>k__BackingField; } 

RecordPerson2 相比 RecordPerson 的区别在于构造器不同:

看上面反编译的结果,可以看出:

  • RecordPeron2RecordPerson 都声明了两个属性,都是 public string Name { get; init; }/public int Age { get; init; }
  • RecordPerson 的构造方法是无参构造方法,而 RecordPerson2 的构造方法是 RecordPerson2(string Name, int Age)
  • 多出来一个 Deconstruct 方法,使得我们可以比较方便的解析一个对象的值,可以参考下面这个示例
foreach (var (name, age) in new[] { p4 }) {     Console.WriteLine($"{name}={age}"); } 

再来看一下测试方法的反编译结果:

RecordSample.RecordPerson p = new RecordSample.RecordPerson {     Name = "Tom",     Age = 12 }; Console.WriteLine(p); RecordSample.RecordPerson recordPerson = p.<Clone>$(); recordPerson.Age = 10; RecordSample.RecordPerson p2 = recordPerson; Console.WriteLine(p2); RecordSample.RecordPerson p3 = new RecordSample.RecordPerson {     Name = "Tom",     Age = 12 }; Console.WriteLine(p3); Console.WriteLine(string.Format("p1 Equals p3 =:{0}", p == p3)); RecordSample.RecordPerson2 p4 = new RecordSample.RecordPerson2("Tom", 12); Console.WriteLine(p4); 

这里主要可以看到 with 表达式的实现,其实就是调用 <Clone>$ 方法复制了一个对象,并修改指定的属性值

More

record 实现了基于值的相等性比较,并且实现了 原型模式,可以比较方便的创建一个新的值完全相等的对象,这对于有一些业务场景来说是非常适合使用 record 来代替原来的实现的

Reference

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