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【实用小技巧】RSA非对称加解密及XML&PEM格式互换方案

​ 最近因考虑接口安全问题,有实现给WEB API实现统一的参数鉴权功能,以防止请求参数被篡改或重复执行,参数鉴权方法基本与常见的鉴权思路相同,采用(timestamp+sign),而我为了防止timestamp被更改,sign算法(timestamp+相关参数排序、格式化后拼接再MD5)也因为在前端是不安全的,故对timestamp采取使用非对称加解密,以尽可能的保证生成的sign不易被破解或替换;

RSA加解密(即:非对称加解密)

生成公钥、私钥对方法(C#),生成出来后默认都是XML格式:

        public static Tuple<string, string> GeneratePublicAndPrivateKeyPair()         {             using (RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa = new RSACryptoServiceProvider())             {                 string publicKey = rsa.ToXmlString(false); // 公钥                 string privateKey = rsa.ToXmlString(true); // 私钥                  return Tuple.Create(publicKey, privateKey);             }         } 

使用公钥加密:(支持分段加密,普通单次加密可能会因为内容过长而报错)

public static string RSAEncrypt(string publicKey, string rawInput)         {             if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(rawInput))             {                 return string.Empty;             }              if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(publicKey))             {                 throw new ArgumentException("Invalid Public Key");             }              using (var rsaProvider = new RSACryptoServiceProvider())             {                 var inputBytes = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(rawInput);//有含义的字符串转化为字节流                 rsaProvider.FromXmlString(publicKey);//载入公钥                 int bufferSize = (rsaProvider.KeySize / 8) - 11;//单块最大长度                 var buffer = new byte[bufferSize];                 using (MemoryStream inputStream = new MemoryStream(inputBytes),                      outputStream = new MemoryStream())                 {                     while (true)                     { //分段加密                         int readSize = inputStream.Read(buffer, 0, bufferSize);                         if (readSize <= 0)                         {                             break;                         }                          var temp = new byte[readSize];                         Array.Copy(buffer, 0, temp, 0, readSize);                         var encryptedBytes = rsaProvider.Encrypt(temp, false);                         outputStream.Write(encryptedBytes, 0, encryptedBytes.Length);                     }                     return Convert.ToBase64String(outputStream.ToArray());//转化为字节流方便传输                 }             }         } 

使用私钥解密:(支持分段解密,普通单次解密可能会因为密文过长而报错)

 public static string RSADecrypt(string privateKey,string encryptedInput)         {             if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(encryptedInput))             {                 return string.Empty;             }              if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(privateKey))             {                 throw new ArgumentException("Invalid Private Key");             }              using (var rsaProvider = new RSACryptoServiceProvider())             {                 var inputBytes = Convert.FromBase64String(encryptedInput);                 rsaProvider.FromXmlString(privateKey);                 int bufferSize = rsaProvider.KeySize / 8;                 var buffer = new byte[bufferSize];                 using (MemoryStream inputStream = new MemoryStream(inputBytes),                      outputStream = new MemoryStream())                 {                     while (true)                     {                         int readSize = inputStream.Read(buffer, 0, bufferSize);                         if (readSize <= 0)                         {                             break;                         }                          var temp = new byte[readSize];                         Array.Copy(buffer, 0, temp, 0, readSize);                         var rawBytes = rsaProvider.Decrypt(temp, false);                         outputStream.Write(rawBytes, 0, rawBytes.Length);                     }                     return Encoding.UTF8.GetString(outputStream.ToArray());                 }             }         } 

如果都是C#项目可能如上两个方法就可以了,但如果需要与WEB前端、JAVA等其它编程语言协同交互处理时(比如:WEB前端用公钥加密,后端C#私钥解密),则可能因为公钥与私钥的格式不相同而导致无法正常的进行对接【前端、JAVA 等语言使用的是PEM格式的,而C#使用的是XML格式】,网上查XML转PEM格式方案时,都是复制自:https://www.cnblogs.com/micenote/p/7862989.html 这篇文章,但其实这篇文章也只是写了私钥XML转PEM格式,并没有说明公钥XML如何转PEM格式,而且只写了支持从文件中获取内容再转换,方案不全,但是给了我(梦在旅途,http://www.zuowenjun.cn or zuowj.cnblogs.com.cn)思路,我经过各种验证,最终实现了比较友好的PEM与XML格式的相互转换方式,且经过单元测试验证通过,在此分享给大家。

如下是完整的XML与PEM格式转换器类代码;(注意需引入BouncyCastle nuget包)

using Org.BouncyCastle.Crypto; using Org.BouncyCastle.Crypto.Parameters; using Org.BouncyCastle.Math; using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.IO; using System.Linq; using System.Security.Cryptography; using System.Text; using System.Threading.Tasks;  namespace Zuowj.Common {     /// <summary>     /// RSA公钥、私钥对格式(XML与PEM)转换器     /// author:zuowenjun     /// date:2020-12-29     /// </summary>     public static class RsaKeysFormatConverter     {         /// <summary>         /// XML公钥转成Pem公钥         /// </summary>         /// <param name="xmlPublicKey"></param>         /// <returns></returns>         public static string XmlPublicKeyToPem(string xmlPublicKey)         {             RSAParameters rsaParam;             using (RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa = new RSACryptoServiceProvider())             {                 rsa.FromXmlString(xmlPublicKey);                 rsaParam = rsa.ExportParameters(false);             }             RsaKeyParameters param = new RsaKeyParameters(false, new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.Modulus), new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.Exponent));              string pemPublicKeyStr = null;             using (var ms = new MemoryStream())             {                 using (var sw = new StreamWriter(ms))                 {                     var pemWriter = new Org.BouncyCastle.OpenSsl.PemWriter(sw);                     pemWriter.WriteObject(param);                     sw.Flush();                      byte[] buffer = new byte[ms.Length];                     ms.Position = 0;                     ms.Read(buffer, 0, (int)ms.Length);                     pemPublicKeyStr = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(buffer);                 }             }              return pemPublicKeyStr;         }          /// <summary>         /// Pem公钥转成XML公钥         /// </summary>         /// <param name="pemPublicKeyStr"></param>         /// <returns></returns>         public static string PemPublicKeyToXml(string pemPublicKeyStr)         {             RsaKeyParameters pemPublicKey;             using (var ms = new MemoryStream(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(pemPublicKeyStr)))             {                 using (var sr = new StreamReader(ms))                 {                     var pemReader = new Org.BouncyCastle.OpenSsl.PemReader(sr);                     pemPublicKey = (RsaKeyParameters)pemReader.ReadObject();                 }             }              var p = new RSAParameters             {                 Modulus = pemPublicKey.Modulus.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),                 Exponent = pemPublicKey.Exponent.ToByteArrayUnsigned()             };              string xmlPublicKeyStr;             using (var rsa = new RSACryptoServiceProvider())             {                 rsa.ImportParameters(p);                 xmlPublicKeyStr = rsa.ToXmlString(false);             }              return xmlPublicKeyStr;         }          /// <summary>         /// XML私钥转成PEM私钥         /// </summary>         /// <param name="xmlPrivateKey"></param>         /// <returns></returns>         public static string XmlPrivateKeyToPem(string xmlPrivateKey)         {             RSAParameters rsaParam;             using (RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa = new RSACryptoServiceProvider())             {                 rsa.FromXmlString(xmlPrivateKey);                 rsaParam = rsa.ExportParameters(true);             }              var param = new RsaPrivateCrtKeyParameters(                 new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.Modulus), new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.Exponent), new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.D),                 new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.P), new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.Q), new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.DP), new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.DQ),                 new BigInteger(1, rsaParam.InverseQ));              string pemPrivateKeyStr = null;             using (var ms = new MemoryStream())             {                 using (var sw = new StreamWriter(ms))                 {                     var pemWriter = new Org.BouncyCastle.OpenSsl.PemWriter(sw);                     pemWriter.WriteObject(param);                     sw.Flush();                      byte[] buffer = new byte[ms.Length];                     ms.Position = 0;                     ms.Read(buffer, 0, (int)ms.Length);                     pemPrivateKeyStr = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(buffer);                 }             }              return pemPrivateKeyStr;         }          /// <summary>         /// Pem私钥转成XML私钥         /// </summary>         /// <param name="pemPrivateKeyStr"></param>         /// <returns></returns>         public static string PemPrivateKeyToXml(string pemPrivateKeyStr)         {             RsaPrivateCrtKeyParameters pemPrivateKey;             using (var ms = new MemoryStream(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(pemPrivateKeyStr)))             {                 using (var sr = new StreamReader(ms))                 {                     var pemReader = new Org.BouncyCastle.OpenSsl.PemReader(sr);                     var keyPair = (AsymmetricCipherKeyPair)pemReader.ReadObject();                     pemPrivateKey = (RsaPrivateCrtKeyParameters)keyPair.Private;                 }             }              var p = new RSAParameters             {                 Modulus = pemPrivateKey.Modulus.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),                 Exponent = pemPrivateKey.PublicExponent.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),                 D = pemPrivateKey.Exponent.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),                 P = pemPrivateKey.P.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),                 Q = pemPrivateKey.Q.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),                 DP = pemPrivateKey.DP.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),                 DQ = pemPrivateKey.DQ.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),                 InverseQ = pemPrivateKey.QInv.ToByteArrayUnsigned(),             };              string xmlPrivateKeyStr;             using (var rsa = new RSACryptoServiceProvider())             {                 rsa.ImportParameters(p);                 xmlPrivateKeyStr = rsa.ToXmlString(true);             }              return xmlPrivateKeyStr;         }      } }  

如下是单元测试代码:

//公钥(XML、PEM格式互)测试 string srcPublicKey = “具体的XML Public Key”;             string pemPublicKeyStr=  RsaKeysFormatConverter.XmlPublicKeyToPem(publicKey);             string xmlPublicKeyStr= RsaKeysFormatConverter.PemPublicKeyToXml(pemPublicKeyStr);             Assert.AreEqual(srcPublicKey, xmlPublicKeyStr); 
//私钥(XML、PEM格式互)测试 string srcPrivateKey = “具体的XML Private Key”;             string pemPrivateKeyStr = RsaKeysFormatConverter.XmlPrivateKeyToPem(srcPrivateKey);             string xmlPrivateKeyStr = RsaKeysFormatConverter.PemPrivateKeyToXml(pemPrivateKeyStr);             Assert.AreEqual(privateKey,xmlPrivateKeyStr) 

当然也可以不用这么费劲自己实现格式转换,可以使用在线网站直接转换:https://the-x.cn/certificate/XmlToPem.aspx ,另外也有一篇文章实现了类似的功能,但生成的PEM格式并非完整的格式,缺少注释头尾:https://www.cnblogs.com/datous/p/RSAKeyConvert.html

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未经允许不得转载:张拓的天空 » 【实用小技巧】RSA非对称加解密及XML&PEM格式互换方案
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