Ansible常用模块

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所属分类:linux技术
摘要

ansible常用模块有:ping
yum
template
copy
user
group
service
raw
command
shell
script
file


Ansible常用模块


Ansible常用模块详解

ansible常用模块有:

ping
yum
template
copy
user
group
service
raw
command
shell
script
file

ansible常用模块raw、command、shell的区别:

  1. shell模块调用的/bin/sh指令执行
  2. command模块不是调用的shell的指令,所以没有bash的环境变量
  3. raw很多地方和shell类似,更多的地方建议使用shell和command模块。但是如果是使用老版本python,需要用到raw,又或者是客户端是路由器,因为没有安装python模块,那就需要使用raw模块了

ansible常用模块之ping

//将受控主机加入ansible清单 [root@ansible ~]# cd /etc/ansible/ [root@ansible ansible]# ls ansible.cfg  hosts  roles [root@ansible ansible]# touch inventory [root@ansible ansible]# ls ansible.cfg  hosts  inventory  roles [root@ansible ansible]# vim ansible.cfg  #inventory      = /etc/ansible/hosts    //取消注释并修改为下面这样 inventory       = /etc/ansible/inventory [root@ansible ansible]# vim inventory  [root@ansible ansible]# cat inventory  [web] 192.168.222.137 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible all -m ping 192.168.222.137 | SUCCESS => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": false,     "ping": "pong" } 

ansible常用模块之command

command模块用于在远程主机上执行命令,ansible默认就是使用command模块。

command模块有一个缺陷就是不能使用管道符和重定向功能。

//查看受控主机的/tmp目录内容 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -a 'ls /tmp' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> a ansible_command_payload_pgp9m_c8 systemd-private-ddc74647b1614d9f97693ed56992353e-nginx.service-LcMflb vmware-root_901-3988228452 vmware-root_903-3979774182 //在受控主机的/tmp目录下新建一个文件test [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -a 'touch /tmp/test' [WARNING]: Consider using the file module with state=touch rather than running 'touch'.  If you need to use command because file is insufficient you can add 'warn: false' to this command task or set 'command_warnings=False' in ansible.cfg to get rid of this message. 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>  [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -a 'ls /tmp' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> a ansible_command_payload_l91ypv4n systemd-private-ddc74647b1614d9f97693ed56992353e-nginx.service-LcMflb test vmware-root_901-3988228452 vmware-root_903-3979774182 //command模块不支持管道符,不支持重定向 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -a "echo 'hello world' > /tmp/test" 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> hello world > /tmp/test [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -a 'cat /tmp/test' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>  [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -a 'ps -ef|grep vsftpd' 192.168.222.137 | FAILED | rc=1 >> error: unsupported SysV option  Usage:  ps [options]   Try 'ps --help <simple|list|output|threads|misc|all>'   or 'ps --help <s|l|o|t|m|a>'  for additional help text.  For more details see ps(1).non-zero return code 

ansible常用模块之raw

raw模块用于在远程主机上执行命令,其支持管道符与重定向

[root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m raw -a 'echo "hello world" > /tmp/test' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> Shared connection to 192.168.222.137 closed.  [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -a 'cat /tmp/test' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> hello world [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m raw -a 'cat /tmp/test|grep -Eo hello' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> hello Shared connection to 192.168.222.137 closed. 

ansible常用模块之shell

shell模块用于在受控机上执行受控机上的脚本,亦可直接在受控机上执行命令。
shell模块亦支持管道与重定向。

//查看受控机上的脚本 [root@nginx ~]# mkdir /scripts/ [root@nginx ~]# cd /scripts/ [root@nginx scripts]# vim test.sh [root@nginx scripts]# cat test.sh  #!/bin/bash my_arry=$(seq 1 10) for i in ${my_arry[@]};do     echo $i done [root@nginx scripts]# chmod +x test.sh  [root@nginx scripts]# cd [root@nginx ~]# ll /scripts/ total 4 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 76 Oct 24 02:33 test.sh //使用shell模块在主控机上执行受控机上的脚本 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a '/bin/bash /scripts/test.sh &> /tmp/test' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>  [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'cat  /tmp/test' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 

ansible常用模块之script

script模块用于在受控机上执行主控机上的脚本

[root@ansible ansible]# mkdir -p /scripts [root@ansible ansible]# vim /scripts/test.sh [root@ansible ansible]# cat /scripts/test.sh  #!/bin/bash my_arry=$(seq 1 10) for i in ${my_arry[@]};do     echo $i done  [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m script -a '/scripts/test.sh' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "changed": true,     "rc": 0,     "stderr": "Shared connection to 192.168.222.137 closed.rn",     "stderr_lines": [         "Shared connection to 192.168.222.137 closed."     ],     "stdout": "1rn2rn3rn4rn5rn6rn7rn8rn9rn10rn",     "stdout_lines": [         "1",         "2",         "3",         "4",         "5",         "6",         "7",         "8",         "9",         "10"     ] } 

ansible常用模块之template

template模块用于生成一个模板,并可将其传输至远程主机上。

//将设置好的阿里源传到受控主机 [root@ansible ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ [root@ansible yum.repos.d]# rm -rf * [root@ansible yum.repos.d]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-vault-8.5.2111.repo        % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current                                  Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed 100  2495  100  2495    0     0   3574      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--  3574 [root@ansible yum.repos.d]# sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo [root@ansible yum.repos.d]# cd [root@ansible ~]# ansible nginx  -m template -a 'src=/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo  dest=/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true,     "checksum": "8bbf30b2d80c3b97292ca7b32f33ef494269a5b8",     "dest": "/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo",     "gid": 0,     "group": "root",     "md5sum": "ed031c350da2532e6a8d09a4d9b05278",     "mode": "0644",     "owner": "root",     "secontext": "system_u:object_r:system_conf_t:s0",     "size": 1653,     "src": "/root/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1666511143.7368824-130351-128775339422969/source",     "state": "file",     "uid": 0 } //查看受控主机上面 [root@nginx ~]# ls /etc/yum.repos.d/ CentOS-Base.repo 

ansible常用模块之yum

yum模块用于在指定节点机器上通过yum管理软件,其支持的参数主要有两个

  1. name:要管理的包名

  2. state:要进行的操作
    state常用的值:

  3. latest:安装软件

  4. installed:安装软件

  5. present:安装软件

  6. removed:卸载软件

  7. absent:卸载软件
    若想使用yum来管理软件,请确保受控机上的yum源无异常。

//在受控机上查询看vsftpd软件是否安装 [root@nginx ~]# rpm -qa|grep vsftpd [root@nginx ~]#  //在ansible主机上使用yum模块在受控机上安装vsftpd [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m yum -a 'name=vsftpd state=present' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true,     "msg": "",     "rc": 0,     "results": [         "Installed: vsftpd-3.0.3-34.el8.x86_64"     ] } //查看受控机上是否安装了vsftpd [root@nginx ~]# rpm -qa|grep vsftpd vsftpd-3.0.3-34.el8.x86_64 

ansible常用模块之copy

copy模块用于复制文件至远程受控机。

[root@ansible ansible]# ls xbz ssh  ssh.sh [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m copy -a 'src=/etc/ansible/xbz/ssh.sh dest=/xbz/'192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true,     "checksum": "da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709",     "dest": "/xbz/ssh.sh",     "gid": 0,     "group": "root",     "md5sum": "d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e",     "mode": "0644",     "owner": "root",     "size": 0,     "src": "/root/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1666551783.8760731-1363195-260276005042864/source",     "state": "file",     "uid": 0 } [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'ls /xbz/' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> ssh.sh 

ansible常用模块之group

group模块用于在受控机上添加或删除组。

//在受控机上添加一个系统组,其gid为306,组名为mysql [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m group -a 'name=mysql gid=306 state=present' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true,     "gid": 306,     "name": "mysql",     "state": "present",     "system": false } [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'grep mysql /etc/group' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> mysql:x:306: //删除受控机上的mysql组 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m group -a 'name=mysql state=absent' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true,     "name": "mysql",     "state": "absent" } [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'grep mysql /etc/group' 192.168.222.137 | FAILED | rc=1 >> non-zero return code 

ansible常用模块之user

user模块用于管理受控机的用户帐号。

//在受控机上添加一个系统用户,用户名为mysql,uid为306,设置其shell为/sbin/nologin,无家目录 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m user -a 'name=mysql uid=306 system=yes create_home=no shell=/sbin/nologin state=present' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true,     "comment": "",     "create_home": false,     "group": 306,     "home": "/home/mysql",     "name": "mysql",     "shell": "/sbin/nologin",     "state": "present",     "system": true,     "uid": 306 } [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'grep mysql /etc/passwd' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> mysql:x:306:306::/home/mysql:/sbin/nologin [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'ls /home' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> nginx //修改mysql用户的uid为366 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m user -a 'name=mysql uid=366' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "append": false,     "changed": true,     "comment": "",     "group": 306,     "home": "/home/mysql",     "move_home": false,     "name": "mysql",     "shell": "/sbin/nologin",     "state": "present",     "uid": 366 } [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137  -m shell -a 'grep mysql /etc/passwd' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> mysql:x:366:306::/home/mysql:/sbin/nologin //删除受控机上的mysql用户 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137  -m shell -a 'grep mysql /etc/passwd' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> mysql:x:366:306::/home/mysql:/sbin/nologin [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m user -a 'name=mysql state=absent' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true,     "force": false,     "name": "mysql",     "remove": false,     "state": "absent" } [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'grep mysql /etc/passwd' 192.168.222.137 | FAILED | rc=1 >> non-zero return code 

ansible常用模块之service

service模块用于管理受控机上的服务。

//查看受控机上的vsftpd服务是否启动 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'systemctl is-active vsftpd' 192.168.222.137 | FAILED | rc=3 >> inactivenon-zero return code [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m service -a 'name=vsftpd state=started' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true,     "name": "vsftpd",     "state": "started",     "status": {         "ActiveState": "inactive", //查看受控机上的vsftpd服务是否启动 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'systemctl is-active vsftpd' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> active //查看受控机上的vsftpd服务是否开机自动启动 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'systemctl is-enabled vsftpd' 192.168.222.137 | FAILED | rc=1 >> disablednon-zero return code //设置受控机上的vsftpd服务开机自动启动 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m service -a 'name=vsftpd enabled=yes' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     },     "changed": true, //查看受控机上的vsftpd服务是否开机自动启动 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'systemctl is-enabled vsftpd' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> enabled //停止受控机上的vsftpd服务 [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m service -a 'name=vsftpd state=stopped' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED => {     "ansible_facts": {         "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"     }, [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'systemctl is-active vsftpd' 192.168.222.137 | FAILED | rc=3 >> inactivenon-zero return code [root@ansible ansible]# ansible 192.168.222.137 -m shell -a 'ss -antl' 192.168.222.137 | CHANGED | rc=0 >> State  Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:PortProcess LISTEN 0      128          0.0.0.0:80        0.0.0.0:*           LISTEN 0      128          0.0.0.0:22        0.0.0.0:*           LISTEN 0      128             [::]:22           [::]:*