keepalived实现nginx负载均衡机高可用

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所属分类:linux技术
摘要

环境说明:apachenginxmasterbackupmasterbackupmasterbackupmasterbackup模拟nginx服务故障启动master端的nginx服务


keepalived实现nginx负载均衡机高可用

环境说明:

系统 主机名 IP 服务
centos8 master 192.168.111.141 nginx
keepalived
centos8 backup 192.168.111.142 nginx
keepalived
centos8 apache 192.168.111.143 httpd
centos8 nginx 192.168.111.144 nginx

配置web界面

apache

//修改名字 [root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname apache [root@localhost ~]# bash [root@apache ~]#   //关闭防火墙和selinux [root@apache ~]# setenforce 0 [root@apache ~]# sed -ri 's/^(SELINUX=).*/1disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config [root@apache ~]# systemctl disable --now firewalld [root@apache ~]# reboot  //配置yum源 [root@apache ~]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-vault-8.5.2111.repo [root@apache ~]# sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo  //安装apache,主页内容为apache [root@apache ~]# yum -y install httpd [root@apache ~]# echo "apache" > /var/www/html/index.html [root@apache ~]# systemctl enable --now httpd [root@apache ~]# ss -anlt State        Recv-Q        Send-Q               Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port       Process        LISTEN       0             128                        0.0.0.0:22                      0.0.0.0:*                         LISTEN       0             128                              *:80                            *:*                         LISTEN       0             128                           [::]:22                         [::]:*                         [root@apache ~]# curl 192.168.111.143 apache 

nginx

//修改名字 [root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname nginx [root@localhost ~]# bash [root@nginx ~]#   //关闭防火墙和selinux [root@nginx ~]# setenforce 0 [root@nginx ~]# sed -ri 's/^(SELINUX=).*/1disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config [root@nginx ~]# systemctl disable --now firewalld [root@nginx ~]# reboot  //配置yum源 [root@nginx ~]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-vault-8.5.2111.repo [root@nginx ~]# sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo  //安装nginx,主页内容为nginx [root@nginx ~]# yum -y install nginx [root@nginx ~]# echo "nginx" > /usr/share/nginx/html/index.html [root@nginx ~]# systemctl enable --now nginx [root@nginx ~]# ss -anlt State        Recv-Q        Send-Q               Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port       Process        LISTEN       0             128                        0.0.0.0:80                      0.0.0.0:*                         LISTEN       0             128                        0.0.0.0:22                      0.0.0.0:*                         LISTEN       0             128                           [::]:80                         [::]:*                         LISTEN       0             128                           [::]:22                         [::]:*                         [root@nginx ~]# curl 192.168.111.144 nginx 

配置nginx负载均衡

master

//修改名字 [root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname master [root@localhost ~]# bash [root@master ~]#   //关闭防火墙和selinux [root@master ~]# setenforce 0 [root@master ~]# sed -ri 's/^(SELINUX=).*/1disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config [root@master ~]# systemctl disable --now firewalld [root@master ~]# reboot  //配置yum源 [root@master ~]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-vault-8.5.2111.repo [root@master ~]# sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo  //创建用户 [root@master ~]# useradd -rMs /sbin/nologin nginx  //安装依赖包 [root@master ~]# dnf -y install pcre-devel openssl openssl-devel gd-devel gcc gcc-c++ make wget vim  //编译安装nginx [root@backup ~]# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.22.0.tar.gz [root@master ~]# tar xf nginx-1.22.0.tar.gz  [root@master ~]# cd nginx-1.22.0 [root@master nginx-1.22.0]# ./configure   --prefix=/usr/local/nginx   --user=nginx   --group=nginx   --with-debug   --with-http_ssl_module   --with-http_realip_module   --with-http_gunzip_module   --with-http_gzip_static_module   --with-http_stub_status_module  [root@master nginx-1.22.0]# make -j $(grep 'processor' /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l) && make install  //配置环境变量 [root@master ~]# echo "export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/nginx/sbin" > /etc/profile.d/nginx.sh [root@master ~]# source /etc/profile.d/nginx.sh                  //配置system启动服务 [root@master ~]# vim /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service [Unit] Description=nginx server daemon After=network.target    [Service] Type=forking ExecStart=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx ExecStop=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s stop ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID   [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target [root@nginx ~]# systemctl daemon-reload  //启动nginx [root@master ~]# systemctl enable --now nginx [root@master ~]# ss -anlt State        Recv-Q       Send-Q               Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port       Process        LISTEN       0            128                        0.0.0.0:80                      0.0.0.0:*                         LISTEN       0            128                        0.0.0.0:22                      0.0.0.0:*                         LISTEN       0            128                           [::]:22                         [::]:*                 //修改配置文件,配置负载均衡 [root@master ~]# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf     upstream web {				//http字段内     server 192.168.111.143;     server 192.168.111.144;     }     .........         location / {				//修改配置文件         root html;         proxy_pass   http://web;         } [root@master ~]# systemctl restart nginx  //查看负载均衡效果 [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.141 apache [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.141 nginx [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.141 apache [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.141 nginx 

backup

//修改名字 [root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname backup [root@localhost ~]# bash [root@backup ~]#   //关闭防火墙和selinux [root@backup ~]# setenforce 0 [root@backup ~]# sed -ri 's/^(SELINUX=).*/1disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config [root@backup ~]# systemctl disable --now firewalld [root@backup ~]# reboot  //配置yum源 [root@backup ~]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-vault-8.5.2111.repo [root@backup ~]# sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo  //创建用户 [root@backup ~]# useradd -rMs /sbin/nologin nginx  //安装依赖包 [root@backup ~]# dnf -y install pcre-devel openssl openssl-devel gd-devel gcc gcc-c++ make wget vim  //编译安装nginx [root@backup ~]# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.22.0.tar.gz [root@backup ~]# tar xf nginx-1.22.0.tar.gz  [root@backup ~]# cd nginx-1.22.0 [root@backup nginx-1.22.0]# ./configure   --prefix=/usr/local/nginx   --user=nginx   --group=nginx   --with-debug   --with-http_ssl_module   --with-http_realip_module   --with-http_gunzip_module   --with-http_gzip_static_module   --with-http_stub_status_module [root@backup nginx-1.22.0]# make -j $(grep 'processor' /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l) && make install  //配置环境变量 [root@backup ~]# echo "export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/nginx/sbin" > /etc/profile.d/nginx.sh [root@backup ~]# source /etc/profile.d/nginx.sh                  //配置system启动服务 [root@backup ~]# vim /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service [Unit] Description=nginx server daemon After=network.target    [Service] Type=forking ExecStart=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx ExecStop=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s stop ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID   [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target [root@backup ~]# systemctl daemon-reload  //启动nginx [root@backup ~]# systemctl enable --now nginx [root@backup ~]# ss -anlt State        Recv-Q        Send-Q               Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port       Process        LISTEN       0             128                        0.0.0.0:80                      0.0.0.0:*                         LISTEN       0             128                        0.0.0.0:22                      0.0.0.0:*                         LISTEN       0             128                           [::]:22                         [::]:*                          //修改配置文件,配置负载均衡 [root@backup ~]# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf     upstream web {				//http字段内     server 192.168.111.143;     server 192.168.111.144;     }     .........         location / {				//修改配置文件         root html;         proxy_pass   http://web;         } [root@backup ~]# systemctl restart nginx  //查看负载均衡效果 [root@backup ~]# curl 192.168.111.142 apache [root@backup ~]# curl 192.168.111.142 nginx [root@backup ~]# curl 192.168.111.142 apache [root@backup ~]# curl 192.168.111.142 nginx 

配置keepalived高可用

master

//首先安装keepalived [root@master ~]# yum -y install keepalived   //编辑配置文件,并启动服务 [root@master ~]# mv /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf{,.bak} [root@master ~]# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf  ! Configuration File for keepalived   global_defs {    router_id lb01 }   vrrp_instance VI_1 {     state MASTER     interface ens33     virtual_router_id 51     priority 100     advert_int 1     authentication {         auth_type PASS         auth_pass 123456     }     virtual_ipaddress {         192.168.111.250     } }   virtual_server 192.168.111.250 80 {     delay_loop 6     lb_algo rr     lb_kind DR     persistence_timeout 50     protocol TCP       real_server 192.168.111.141 80 {         weight 1         TCP_CHECK {             connect_port 80             connect_timeout 3             nb_get_retry 3             delay_before_retry 3         }     }       real_server 192.168.111.142 80 {         weight 1         TCP_CHECK {             connect_port 80             connect_timeout 3             nb_get_retry 3             delay_before_retry 3         }     } } [root@master ~]# systemctl enable --now keepalived  //通过虚拟IP访问 [root@master ~]# ip a 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000     link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00     inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 ::1/128 scope host         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000     link/ether 00:0c:29:50:34:72 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff     inet 192.168.111.141/24 brd 192.168.111.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute ens33        valid_lft 1500sec preferred_lft 1500sec     inet 192.168.111.250/32 scope global ens33        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe50:3472/64 scope link noprefixroute         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever   //通过虚拟ip访问 //一定要把backup端的nginx服务关掉才能访问,  [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 apache [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 nginx [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 apache [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 nginx 

backup

//首先安装keepalived [root@backup ~]# dnf -y install keepalived   //编辑配置文件,并启动服务 [root@backup ~]# mv /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf{,.back} [root@backup ~]# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf ! Configuration File for keepalived   global_defs {    router_id lb02 }   vrrp_instance VI_1 {     state BACKUP     interface ens33     virtual_router_id 50     priority 90     advert_int 1     authentication {         auth_type PASS         auth_pass 123456     }     virtual_ipaddress {         192.168.111.250     } }   virtual_server 192.168.111.250 80 {     delay_loop 6     lb_algo rr     lb_kind DR     persistence_timeout 50     protocol TCP       real_server 192.168.111.141 80 {         weight 1         TCP_CHECK {             connect_port 80             connect_timeout 3             nb_get_retry 3             delay_before_retry 3         }     }       real_server 192.168.111.142 80 {         weight 1         TCP_CHECK {             connect_port 80             connect_timeout 3             nb_get_retry 3             delay_before_retry 3         }     } } [root@backup ~]# systemctl enable --now keepalived 

编写脚本

master

[root@master ~]# mkdir /scripts [root@master ~]# cd /scripts/ [root@master scripts]# vim check_nginx.sh #!/bin/bash nginx_status=$(ps -ef|grep -Ev "grep|$0"|grep 'bnginxb'|wc -l) if [ $nginx_status -lt 1 ];then     systemctl stop keepalived fi  [root@master scripts]# vim notify.sh #!/bin/bash VIP=$2 case "$1" in   master)         nginx_status=$(ps -ef|grep -Ev "grep|$0"|grep 'bnginxb'|wc -l)         if [ $nginx_status -lt 1 ];then             systemctl start nginx         fi   ;;   backup)         nginx_status=$(ps -ef|grep -Ev "grep|$0"|grep 'bnginxb'|wc -l)         if [ $nginx_status -gt 0 ];then             systemctl stop nginx         fi   ;;   *)         echo "Usage:$0 master|backup VIP"   ;; esac [root@master scripts]# chmod +x check_haproxy.sh notify.sh  

backup

[root@backup ~]# mkdir /scripts [root@backup ~]# cd /scripts/ [root@backup scripts]# scp root@192.168.111.141:/scripts/notify.sh . 

配置keepalived加入监控脚本的配置

master

[root@master ~]# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf ! Configuration File for keepalived   global_defs {    router_id lb01 }   vrrp_script nginx_check {				//添加     script "/scripts/check_nginx.sh"     interval 1     weight -20 }  vrrp_instance VI_1 {     state MASTER     interface ens33     virtual_router_id 51     priority 100     advert_int 1     authentication {         auth_type PASS         auth_pass 123456     }     virtual_ipaddress {         192.168.111.250     }     track_script {			//添加         haproxy_check     }     notify_master "/scripts/notify.sh master 192.168.111.250" }   virtual_server 192.168.111.250 80 {     delay_loop 6     lb_algo rr     lb_kind DR     persistence_timeout 50     protocol TCP       real_server 192.168.111.141 80 {         weight 1         TCP_CHECK {             connect_port 80             connect_timeout 3             nb_get_retry 3             delay_before_retry 3         }     }       real_server 192.168.111.142 80 {         weight 1         TCP_CHECK {             connect_port 80             connect_timeout 3             nb_get_retry 3             delay_before_retry 3         }     } } [root@master scripts]# systemctl restart keepalived 

backup

[root@backup ~]# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf ! Configuration File for keepalived   global_defs {    router_id lb02 }   vrrp_instance VI_1 {     state BACKUP     interface ens33     virtual_router_id 50     priority 90     advert_int 1     authentication {         auth_type PASS         auth_pass 123456     }     virtual_ipaddress {         192.168.111.250     }     notify_master "/scripts/notify.sh master 192.168.111.250"		//添加     notify_backup "/scripts/notify.sh backup 192.168.111.250" }   virtual_server 192.168.111.250 80 {     delay_loop 6     lb_algo rr     lb_kind DR     persistence_timeout 50     protocol TCP       real_server 192.168.111.141 80 {         weight 1         TCP_CHECK {             connect_port 80             connect_timeout 3             nb_get_retry 3             delay_before_retry 3         }     }       real_server 192.168.111.142 80 {         weight 1         TCP_CHECK {             connect_port 80             connect_timeout 3             nb_get_retry 3             delay_before_retry 3         }     } } [root@backup ~]# systemctl restart keepalived 

测试

模拟nginx服务故障

//master端 [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 apache [root@master ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 nginx [root@master ~]# ip a 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000     link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00     inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 ::1/128 scope host         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000     link/ether 00:0c:29:50:34:72 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff     inet 192.168.111.141/24 brd 192.168.111.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute ens33        valid_lft 1601sec preferred_lft 1601sec     inet 192.168.111.250/32 scope global ens33        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe50:3472/64 scope link noprefixroute         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever [root@master ~]# systemctl stop nginx [root@master ~]# ip a 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000     link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00     inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 ::1/128 scope host         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000     link/ether 00:0c:29:50:34:72 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff     inet 192.168.111.141/24 brd 192.168.111.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute ens33        valid_lft 1591sec preferred_lft 1591sec     inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe50:3472/64 scope link noprefixroute         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever  //backup端 [root@backup ~]# systemctl start nginx    //前面把服务关了这里启动一下 [root@backup ~]# ip a 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000     link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00     inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 ::1/128 scope host         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000     link/ether 00:0c:29:07:42:65 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff     inet 192.168.111.142/24 brd 192.168.111.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute ens33        valid_lft 947sec preferred_lft 947sec     inet 192.168.111.250/32 scope global ens33        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe07:4265/64 scope link noprefixroute         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever [root@backup ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 apache [root@backup ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 nginx [root@backup ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 apache [root@backup ~]# curl 192.168.111.250 nginx 

启动master端的nginx服务

//master端 [root@master scripts]# systemctl start nginx [root@master scripts]# systemctl restart keepalived [root@master ~]# ip a 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000     link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00     inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 ::1/128 scope host         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000     link/ether 00:0c:29:50:34:72 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff     inet 192.168.111.141/24 brd 192.168.111.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute ens33        valid_lft 1223sec preferred_lft 1223sec     inet 192.168.111.250/32 scope global ens33        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe50:3472/64 scope link noprefixroute         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever  //backup端 [root@backup ~]# ip a 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000     link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00     inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo        valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever     inet6 ::1/128 scope host         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000     link/ether 00:0c:29:07:42:65 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff     inet 192.168.111.142/24 brd 192.168.111.255 scope global dynamic noprefixroute ens33        valid_lft 1632sec preferred_lft 1632sec     inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe07:4265/64 scope link noprefixroute         valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever