Podman部署及应用

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所属分类:linux技术
摘要

Podman是一个开源项目,可在大多数Linux平台上使用并开源在GitHub上。Podman是一个无守护进程的容器引擎,用于在Linux系统上开发,管理和运行Open Container Initiative(OCI)容器和容器镜像。Podman提供了一个与Docker兼容的命令行前端,它可以简单地作为Docker cli,简单地说你可以直接添加别名:alias docker = podman来使用podman。


Podman部署及应用

什么是podman

Podman是一个开源项目,可在大多数Linux平台上使用并开源在GitHub上。Podman是一个无守护进程的容器引擎,用于在Linux系统上开发,管理和运行Open Container Initiative(OCI)容器和容器镜像。Podman提供了一个与Docker兼容的命令行前端,它可以简单地作为Docker cli,简单地说你可以直接添加别名:alias docker = podman来使用podman。

Podman控制下的容器可以由root用户运行,也可以由非特权用户运行。Podman管理整个容器的生态系统,其包括pod,容器,容器镜像,和使用libpod library的容器卷。Podman专注于帮助您维护和修改OCI容器镜像的所有命令和功能,例如拉取和标记。它允许您在生产环境中创建,运行和维护从这些映像创建的容器

podman官网

部署podman

安装podman

[root@localhost ~]# dnf -y install podman  //配置podman镜像加速器 [root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/containers/registries.conf unqualified-search-registries = ["docker.io"]		//修改设置拉取镜像取docker官网拉取 [[registry]]			//添加 prefix = "docker.io"	//添加 location = "w673ojdv.mirror.aliyuncs.com"			//配置加速器 [root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable --now podman 

查看版本

[root@localhost ~]# podman -v podman version 3.3.1 [root@localhost ~]# podman version Version:      3.3.1 API Version:  3.3.1 Go Version:   go1.16.7 Built:        Wed Nov 10 05:23:56 2021 OS/Arch:      linux/amd64  //查看详细信息 [root@localhost ~]# podman info host:   arch: amd64   buildahVersion: 1.22.3   cgroupManager: systemd   cgroupVersion: v1   conmon:     package: conmon-2.0.29-1.module_el8.5.0+890+6b136101.x86_64     path: /usr/bin/conmon     version: 'conmon version 2.0.29, commit: 84384406047fae626269133e1951c4b92eed7603'   cpus: 4   distribution:     distribution: '"centos"'     version: "8" -----------------省略-------------------- imageStore:     number: 1   runRoot: /run/containers/storage   volumePath: /var/lib/containers/storage/volumes version:   APIVersion: 3.3.1   Built: 1636493036   BuiltTime: Wed Nov 10 05:23:56 2021   GitCommit: ""   GoVersion: go1.16.7   OsArch: linux/amd64   Version: 3.3.1 

podman基础操作

搜索镜像

[root@localhost ~]# podman search httpd INDEX       NAME                                          DESCRIPTION                                      STARS       OFFICIAL    AUTOMATED docker.io   docker.io/library/httpd                       The Apache HTTP Server Project                   4116        [OK]         docker.io   docker.io/clearlinux/httpd                    httpd HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) ser...  2                        docker.io   docker.io/centos/httpd-24-centos7             Platform for running Apache httpd 2.4 or bui...  44                       docker.io   docker.io/manageiq/httpd                      Container with httpd, built on CentOS for Ma...  1                       [OK] 

拉取镜像

[root@localhost ~]# podman pull httpd Resolving "httpd" using unqualified-search registries (/etc/containers/registries.conf) Trying to pull docker.io/library/httpd:latest... Getting image source signatures Copying blob dcc4698797c8 done   Copying blob 41c22baa66ec done   Copying blob d982c879c57e done   Copying blob a2abf6c4d29d done   Copying blob 67283bbdd4a0 done   Copying config dabbfbe0c5 done   Writing manifest to image destination Storing signatures dabbfbe0c57b6e5cd4bc089818d3f664acfad496dc741c9a501e72d15e803b34 

列出镜像

[root@localhost ~]# podman images REPOSITORY               TAG         IMAGE ID      CREATED       SIZE docker.io/library/httpd  latest      dabbfbe0c57b  7 months ago  148 MB  [root@localhost ~]# podman image ls REPOSITORY               TAG         IMAGE ID      CREATED       SIZE docker.io/library/httpd  latest      dabbfbe0c57b  7 months ago  148 MB  

删除镜像

[root@localhost ~]# podman rmi httpd Untagged: docker.io/library/httpd:latest Deleted: dabbfbe0c57b6e5cd4bc089818d3f664acfad496dc741c9a501e72d15e803b34 [root@localhost ~]# podman images REPOSITORY  TAG         IMAGE ID    CREATED     SIZE  [root@localhost ~]# podman image rm httpd Untagged: docker.io/library/httpd:latest Deleted: dabbfbe0c57b6e5cd4bc089818d3f664acfad496dc741c9a501e72d15e803b34 [root@localhost ~]# podman images REPOSITORY  TAG         IMAGE ID    CREATED     SIZE  [root@localhost ~]# podman rmi -f httpd Untagged: docker.io/library/httpd:latest Deleted: dabbfbe0c57b6e5cd4bc089818d3f664acfad496dc741c9a501e72d15e803b34 [root@localhost ~]# podman images REPOSITORY  TAG         IMAGE ID    CREATED     SIZE 

导出镜像

[root@localhost ~]# podman image save httpd > httod.tar [root@localhost ~]# ls anaconda-ks.cfg  httod.tar 

导入镜像

[root@localhost ~]# podman images REPOSITORY               TAG         IMAGE ID      CREATED       SIZE docker.io/library/httpd  latest      dabbfbe0c57b  7 months ago  148 MB [root@localhost ~]# podman rmi httpd Untagged: docker.io/library/httpd:latest Deleted: dabbfbe0c57b6e5cd4bc089818d3f664acfad496dc741c9a501e72d15e803b34 [root@localhost ~]# podman images REPOSITORY  TAG         IMAGE ID    CREATED     SIZE [root@localhost ~]# podman image load < httod.tar  Getting image source signatures Copying blob deefaa620a71 done   Copying blob 1da636a1aa95 done   Copying blob 2edcec3590a4 done   Copying blob 15e4bf5d0804 done   Copying blob 9cff3206f9a6 done   Copying config dabbfbe0c5 done   Writing manifest to image destination Storing signatures Loaded image(s): docker.io/library/httpd:latest [root@localhost ~]# podman images REPOSITORY               TAG         IMAGE ID      CREATED       SIZE docker.io/library/httpd  latest      dabbfbe0c57b  7 months ago  148 MB 

创建容器

//podman create 创建容器 [root@localhost ~]# podman create httpd		//创建但不启动容器 5d0bd832c2d6477ba535819abc1c4072ce17fa4feab015b4e92c72c9fb053831 

创建并启动容器

//podman run 创建一个运行的容器 [root@localhost ~]# podman run -it --name web httpd /bin/bash root@9868d220012a:~#   --name 容器名 //指定容器名 --label 标记名 //加标记方便查找 -it   //让容器的输入保持打开状态,并分配终端 -c    //不进行登录执行命令 -d    //将容器放入后台进行执行 -v     //可以创建多个数据卷也可挂载到宿主机的目录,如果本地没有目录,则自动生成一个目录        //挂载方法:宿主机目录:docker数据卷 -p     //小写p映射端口   宿主机端:容器端口 -P      //大写P发布所有公开的端口(随机映射端口号) --volumes-from  //容器和容器之间建立联系 ----restart always //永久开启容器,服务重启后容器也会启动,不会关闭 --rm //一次性容器,退出后直接删除 

列出容器

[root@localhost ~]# podman ps CONTAINER ID  IMAGE       COMMAND     CREATED     STATUS      PORTS       NAMES  //-a 查看全部容器,包含未启动的容器 [root@localhost ~]# podman ps -a			 CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                           COMMAND           CREATED        STATUS      PORTS       NAMES 5d0bd832c2d6  docker.io/library/httpd:latest  httpd-foreground  2 minutes ago  Created                 friendly_ritchie 

启动一个或多个容器

[root@localhost ~]# podman start web web 

停止一个或多个容器

[root@localhost ~]# podman stop web web 

重启容器

[root@localhost ~]# podman restart web 1a779a889fd2d0758f1b1672a9142358153327f9ec00765e62641ce0fee79497 

连接到运行的容器

[root@localhost ~]# podman attach web		//退出会关闭 root@1a779a889fd2# exit 

在正在运行的容器中运行命令

[root@localhost ~]# podman exec -it web /bin/sh			//退出不会停止 # ls bin  build  cgi-bin  conf  error  htdocs  icons  include  logs  modules # exit [root@localhost ~]# podman ps CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                           COMMAND     CREATED        STATUS             PORTS               NAMES 0118e5cab030  docker.io/library/httpd:latest  /bin/bash   4 minutes ago  Up 54 seconds ago  0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp  web 

删除容器

[root@localhost ~]# podman ps -a CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                           COMMAND           CREATED        STATUS      PORTS       NAMES 5d0bd832c2d6  docker.io/library/httpd:latest  httpd-foreground  2 minutes ago  Created                 friendly_ritchie [root@localhost ~]# podman rm 5d0bd832c2d6 5d0bd832c2d6477ba535819abc1c4072ce17fa4feab015b4e92c72c9fb053831 [root@localhost ~]# podman ps -a CONTAINER ID  IMAGE       COMMAND     CREATED     STATUS      PORTS       NAMES  [root@localhost ~]# podman ps -a		 CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                           COMMAND           CREATED         STATUS      PORTS       NAMES 391246a3e97d  docker.io/library/httpd:latest  httpd-foreground  12 seconds ago  Created                 condescending_cartwright [root@localhost ~]# podman rm -f 391246a3e97d	//-f  强制删除 391246a3e97d071e4da2ac4dbe7b4414e99ac840edc67adaf1c7d9c04f5c9abf [root@localhost ~]# podman ps -a CONTAINER ID  IMAGE       COMMAND     CREATED     STATUS      PORTS       NAMES 

查看容器日志

[root@localhost ~]# docker logs web AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.2. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.2. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message [Fri Aug 05 15:17:38.444681 2022] [mpm_event:notice] [pid 1:tid 139833106722112] AH00489: Apache/2.4.52 (Unix) configured -- resuming normal operations 

干掉运行中的容器

[root@localhost ~]# docker kill web		//kill强制关闭 web [root@localhost ~]# docker ps -a CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND              CREATED         STATUS                       PORTS     NAMES 9fdaf3c409da   httpd     "httpd-foreground"   6 minutes ago   Exited (137) 4 seconds ago             web 

显示容器或镜像的配置

[root@localhost ~]# podman inspect httpd [     {         "Id": "dabbfbe0c57b6e5cd4bc089818d3f664acfad496dc741c9a501e72d15e803b34",         "Digest": "sha256:0954cc1af252d824860b2c5dc0a10720af2b7a3d3435581ca788dff8480c7b32",         "RepoTags": [             "docker.io/library/httpd:latest"         ],         "RepoDigests": [             "docker.io/library/httpd@sha256:0954cc1af252d824860b2c5dc0a10720af2b7a3d3435581ca788dff8480c7b32",             "docker.io/library/httpd@sha256:57c1e4ff150e2782a25c8cebb80b574f81f06b74944caf972f27e21b76074194"         ] 

登录镜像仓库

[root@localhost ~]# podman login docker.io Username: xinruizhong Password:  Login Succeeded! 

登出镜像仓库

[root@localhost ~]# podman logout docker.io Removed login credentials for docker.io 

显示指定镜像的历史记录

[root@localhost ~]# podman image history httpd ID            CREATED       CREATED BY                                     SIZE              COMMENT dabbfbe0c57b  7 months ago  /bin/sh -c #(nop)  CMD ["httpd-foreground"]    0 B                <missing>     7 months ago  /bin/sh -c #(nop)  EXPOSE 80                   0 B                <missing>     7 months ago  /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY file:c432ff61c4993e...  3.58 kB            <missing>     7 months ago  /bin/sh -c #(nop)  STOPSIGNAL SIGWINCH         0 B                <missing>     7 months ago  /bin/sh -c set -eux;                                             savedAptMark="$(apt...  61.1 MB