.NET异步编程模式(三)

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所属分类:.NET技术
摘要

EAP(Event-based Asynchronous Pattern) 是基于事件的异步模式,在 .NET Framework 2.0 中引入。EAP 需要一个有 Async 后缀方法和一个或多个事件。EAP不再推荐用于新开发。

EAP(Event-based Asynchronous Pattern) 是基于事件的异步模式,在 .NET Framework 2.0 中引入。EAP 需要一个有 Async 后缀方法和一个或多个事件。EAP不再推荐用于新开发

EAP

一个符合 EAP 模式的示例声明如下:

public class AsyncExample   {       // Synchronous methods.       public int Method1(string param);       public void Method2(double param);          // Asynchronous methods.       public void Method1Async(string param);       public void Method1Async(string param, object userState);       public event Method1CompletedEventHandler Method1Completed;          public void Method2Async(double param);       public void Method2Async(double param, object userState);       public event Method2CompletedEventHandler Method2Completed;          public void CancelAsync(object userState);          public bool IsBusy { get; }          // Class implementation not shown.   } 

BackgroundWorker

SoundPlayer和PictureBox组件表示基于事件的异步模式的简单实现。WebClient和BackgroundWorker组件代表了基于事件的异步模式的更复杂的实现。

 private void EAP_Btn_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e) {     // 记录时间     Debug.WriteLine("1-" + DateTime.Now.TimeOfDay.ToString() +                     ",ThreadID = " + Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);      BackgroundWorker worker = new BackgroundWorker();     // 事件绑定     worker.DoWork += Worker_DoWork;     worker.RunWorkerCompleted += Worker_RunWorkerCompleted;     // 异步执行     worker.RunWorkerAsync();      // 记录时间     Debug.WriteLine("4-" + DateTime.Now.TimeOfDay.ToString() +                     ",ThreadID = " + Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId); }  private void Worker_RunWorkerCompleted(object? sender, RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e) {     // 记录时间     Debug.WriteLine("3-" + DateTime.Now.TimeOfDay.ToString() +                     ",ThreadID = " + Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId); }  private void Worker_DoWork(object? sender, DoWorkEventArgs e) {     // 访问外网网站网站     var req = WebRequest.Create("https://docs.newrelic.com/docs/apm/agents/net-agent/getting-started/net-agent-compatibility-requirements-net-framework/");     req.GetResponse();      Debug.WriteLine("2-" + DateTime.Now.TimeOfDay.ToString() +                     ",ThreadID = " + Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId); } 

程序运行效果:

.NET异步编程模式(三)

日志输出:

1-17:00:10.3584040,ThreadID = 1 4-17:00:10.3609798,ThreadID = 1 2-17:00:11.3485887,ThreadID = 8 3-17:00:11.3514632,ThreadID = 1 

从效果和日志上看:

  • EAP 不会阻塞调用线程
  • 异步操作真正执行是在另外一个线程
  • RunWorkerCompleted 回调会回到调用线程(UI线程)

和APM比起来很像,好像只是把 委托绑定 放到了外面。
我们可以看一下 BackgroundWorker 的源码:

  • 在构造函数里实例化一个委托 threadStart

.NET异步编程模式(三)

.NET异步编程模式(三)

.NET异步编程模式(三)

  • 调用 RunWorkerAsync() 方法

.NET异步编程模式(三)

看起来 EAP 的本质,还是使用了委托的异步方式(BeginInvoke),实质上还是 APM 异步模式。

多任务

如果有多个异步任务,我们希望按照先后顺序执行,并且需要在调用线程上得到所有返回值。

public Func<string, string> func1() {     return new Func<string, string>(t =>     {         Thread.Sleep(2000);         return "name:" + t;     }); } public Func<string, string> func2() {     return new Func<string, string>(t =>     {         Thread.Sleep(2000);         return "age:" + t;     }); } public Func<string, string> func3() {     return new Func<string, string>(t =>     {         Thread.Sleep(2000);         return "sex:" + t;     }); }  // 按照一定的顺序去执行 public void Multi_APM_Btn_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e) {     string str1 = string.Empty, str2 = string.Empty, str3 = string.Empty;     IAsyncResult asyncResult1 = null, asyncResult2 = null, asyncResult3 = null;      asyncResult1 = func1().BeginInvoke("张三", t =>     {         str1 = func1().EndInvoke(t);         Debug.WriteLine("1-" + DateTime.Now.TimeOfDay.ToString() +",ThreadID = " + Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);         asyncResult2 = func2().BeginInvoke("26", a =>         {             str2 = func2().EndInvoke(a);             Debug.WriteLine("2-" + DateTime.Now.TimeOfDay.ToString() +",ThreadID = " + Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);             asyncResult3 = func3().BeginInvoke("男", s =>             {                 str3 = func3().EndInvoke(s);                 Debug.WriteLine("3-" + DateTime.Now.TimeOfDay.ToString() + ",ThreadID = " + Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);             }, null);         }, null);     }, null);      asyncResult1.AsyncWaitHandle.WaitOne();     asyncResult2.AsyncWaitHandle.WaitOne();     asyncResult3.AsyncWaitHandle.WaitOne();     Debug.WriteLine(str1 + str2 + str3); }  

运行起来,发现有异常:

由此可见在完成第一个异步操作之前没有对asyncResult2进行赋值,asyncResult2执行异步等待的时候报异常。也可以有其他方法来解决这个问题,但会比较复杂。