搭建lamp架构

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所属分类:linux技术
摘要

所谓lamp,其实就是由Linux+Apache+Mysql/MariaDB+Php/Perl/Python的一组动态网站或者服务器的开源软件,除Linux外其它各部件本身都是各自独立的程序,但是因为经常被放在一起使用,拥有了越来越高的兼容度,共同组成了一个强大的Web应用程序平台。


搭建lamp架构

1.LAMP架构介绍

所谓lamp,其实就是由Linux+Apache+Mysql/MariaDB+Php/Perl/Python的一组动态网站或者服务器的开源软件,除Linux外其它各部件本身都是各自独立的程序,但是因为经常被放在一起使用,拥有了越来越高的兼容度,共同组成了一个强大的Web应用程序平台。

LAMP指的是Linux(操作系统)、Apache(HTTP服务器)、MySQL(也指MariaDB,数据库软件)和PHP(有时也是指Perl或Python)的第一个字母,一般用来建立web应用平台。

2.架构说明

搭建lamp架构

apache主要实现如下功能:

第一:处理http的请求、构建响应报文等自身服务;

第二:配置让Apache支持PHP程序的响应(通过PHP模块或FPM);

第三:配置Apache具体处理php程序的方法,如通过反向代理将php程序交给fcgi处理。

mariadb主要实现如下功能:

第一:提供PHP程序对数据的存储;

第二:提供PHP程序对数据的读取(通常情况下从性能的角度考虑,尽量实现数据库的读写分离)。

php主要实现如下功能:

第一:提供apache的访问接口,即CGI或Fast CGI(FPM);

第二:提供PHP程序的解释器;

第三:提供mairadb数据库的连接函数的基本环境。

由此可知,要实现LAMP在配置每一个服务时,安装功能需求进行配置,即可实现LAMP的架构,当然apache、mariadb和php服务都可配置为独立服务,安装在不同服务器之上。

3.lamp平台搭建

环境说明

系统平台 IP 需要安装的服务
centos8 192.168.111.135 http
mysql
php
php-mysql

lamp平台软件安装次序:

http - - > mysql - - > php			//顺序不可逆 

注意:php要求httpd使用prefork MPM

阿里云

需要配置一个epel源

[root@localhost ~]# yum install -y https://mirrors.aliyun.com/epel/epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm [root@localhost ~]# sed -i 's|^#baseurl=https://download.example/pub|baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com|' /etc/yum.repos.d/epel* [root@localhost ~]# sed -i 's|^metalink|#metalink|' /etc/yum.repos.d/epel* 

3.1 编译安装httpd

//先下载需要的依赖包 [root@localhost ~]# dnf -y groupinstall "Development Tools" --allowerasing [root@localhost ~]# dnf -y install wget openssl-devel pcre-devel expat-devel libtool libxml2-devel make gcc gcc-c++  //创建一个apache的用户 [root@localhost ~]# useradd -r -M -s /sbin/nologin apache [root@localhost ~]# id apache uid=994(apache) gid=991(apache) groups=991(apache)  //wget下载安装httpd所需要的包 [root@localhost ~]# wget https://downloads.apache.org/apr/apr-1.7.0.tar.gz https://downloads.apache.org/apr/apr-util-1.6.1.tar.gz https://downloads.apache.org/httpd/httpd-2.4.54.tar.gz [root@localhost ~]# ls anaconda-ks.cfg  apr-1.7.0.tar.gz  apr-util-1.6.1.tar.gz  httpd-2.4.54.tar.gz  //解压并编译 [root@localhost ~]# tar xf apr-1.7.0.tar.gz  [root@localhost ~]# tar xf apr-util-1.6.1.tar.gz  [root@localhost ~]# tar xf httpd-2.4.54.tar.gz  [root@localhost ~]# ls anaconda-ks.cfg  apr-1.7.0  apr-1.7.0.tar.gz  apr-util-1.6.1  apr-util-1.6.1.tar.gz  httpd-2.4.54  httpd-2.4.54.tar.gz  //进入apr-1.7.0的configure删除这一行或者注释这一行 [root@localhost ~]# cd apr-1.7.0 [root@localhost apr-1.7.0]# vim configure cfgfile=${ofile}T     trap "$RM "$cfgfile"; exit 1" 1 2 15     #$RM "$cfgfile"			//注释这行  //编译apr [root@localhost apr-1.7.0]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apr [root@localhost apr-1.7.0]# make && make install  //编译apr-util [root@localhost httpd-2.4.54]# cd ../apr-util-1.6.1 [root@localhost apr-util-1.6.1]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apr-util --with-apr=/usr/local/apr/ [root@localhost apr-util-1.6.1]# make && make install  //编译httpd [root@localhost ~]# cd httpd-2.4.54 [root@localhost httpd-2.4.54]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apache --enable-so --enable-ssl --enable-cgi --enable-rewrite --with-zlib --with-pcre --with-apr=/usr/local/apr --with-apr-util=/usr/local/apr-util/ --enable-modules=most --enable-mpms-shared=all --with-rpm=prefork [root@localhost httpd-2.4.54]# make && make install  //配置环境变量 [root@localhost ~]# echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/apache/bin:$PATH' > /etc/profile.d/apache.sh [root@localhost ~]# source /etc/profile.d/apache.sh [root@localhost ~]# which apachectl /usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl  //创建头文件软连接 [root@localhost ~]# ln -s /usr/local/apache/include/ /usr/include/apache  //添加帮助文档 [root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/man_db.conf  MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/man MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/share/man MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/local/share/man MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/local/apache/man		//添加  //取消警报 [root@localhost ~]# vim /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf ServerName www.example.com:80 		//取消这行注释  //编写控制脚本 [root@localhost ~]# cd /usr/lib/systemd/system/ [root@localhost system]# cp sshd.service httpd.service [root@localhost system]# vim httpd.service  [Unit] Description=httpd server daemon After=network.target sshd-keygen.target  [Service] Type=forking ExecStart=/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl start ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID ExecStop=/usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl stop  [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target [root@localhost ~]# systemctl daemon-reload			//刷新一下  //设置开机自启动 [root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable --now http[root@localhost ~]# setenforce 0d Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/httpd.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service. [root@localhost ~]# ss -anlt State            Recv-Q           Send-Q                     Local Address:Port                     Peer Address:Port           Process            LISTEN           0                128                              0.0.0.0:22                            0.0.0.0:*                                 LISTEN           0                128                                    *:80                                  *:*                                 LISTEN           0                128                                 [::]:22                               [::]:*                                  //关闭防火墙和selinux [root@localhost ~]# systemctl disable --now firewalld Removed /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service. Removed /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service. [root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/selinux/config  SELINUX=disabled [root@localhost ~]# setenforce 0 

3.2 二进制安装mysql

//安装依赖包 [root@localhost ~]# yum -y install ncurses-devel openssl-devel openssl cmake mariadb-devel ncurses-compat-libs  //创建用户 [root@localhost ~]# useradd -r -M -s /sbin/nologin mysql [root@localhost ~]# id mysql uid=993(mysql) gid=990(mysql) groups=990(mysql)  //下载二进制包 [root@localhost ~]# cd /usr/src/ [root@localhost src]# wget https://downloads.mysql.com/archives/get/p/23/file/mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz  //解压软件包 [root@localhost src]# tar xf mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/  //更改软件名,更改属主属组 [root@localhost src]# cd /usr/local/ [root@localhost local]# mv mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 mysql [root@localhost local]# chown -R mysql.mysql mysql* [root@localhost local]# ll -d mysql drwxr-xr-x. 9 mysql mysql 129 Aug  2 19:08 mysql  //配置环境变量 [root@localhost local]# echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH' > /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh [root@localhost local]# source /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh  //创建头文件 [root@localhost local]# ln -s /usr/local/mysql/include /usr/include/mysql  //添加帮助文档 [root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/man_db.conf  MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/man MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/share/man MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/local/share/man MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/local/apache/man MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/local/mysql/man		//添加  //创建库文件 [root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/ld.so.conf.d/mysql.conf [root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/ld.so.conf.d/mysql.conf /usr/local/mysql/lib/ [root@localhost ~]# ldconfig   //创建数据存放目录 [root@localhost ~]# mkdir /opt/data [root@localhost ~]# chown -R mysql.mysql /opt/data/ [root@localhost ~]# ll -d /opt/data/ drwxr-xr-x. 2 mysql mysql 6 Aug  2 19:13 /opt/data/  //初始化 [root@localhost ~]# mysqld --initialize --user mysql --datadir /opt/data/ 2022-08-02T11:33:30.837163Z 0 [Warning] CA certificate ca.pem is self signed. 2022-08-02T11:33:30.882575Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: ,%//ikYZV3tZ		//最后一行会生成临时密码 [root@localhost ~]# echo ',%//ikYZV3tZ' > passwd		//记录一下密码  //编写配置文件 [root@localhost ~]# dnf -y remove mariadb* [root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf [mysqld] basedir = /usr/local/mysql datadir = /opt/data socket = /tmp/mysql.sock port = 3306 pid-file = /opt/data/mysql.pid user = mysql skip-name-resolve  //编写服务控制脚本 [root@localhost ~]# cd /usr/lib/systemd/system/ [root@localhost system]# cp httpd.service mysqld.service [root@localhost system]# vim mysqld.service  [Unit] Description=mysql server daemon After=network.target sshd-keygen.target  [Service] Type=forking ExecStart=/usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server start ExecStop=/usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server stop ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID  [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target [root@localhost ~]# systemctl daemon-reload		//刷新一下  //设置开机自启 [root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable --now mysqld Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mysqld.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service. [root@localhost ~]# ss -anlt State            Recv-Q           Send-Q                     Local Address:Port                     Peer Address:Port           Process            LISTEN           0                128                              0.0.0.0:22                            0.0.0.0:*                                 LISTEN           0                80                                     *:3306                                *:*                                 LISTEN           0                128                                    *:80                                  *:*                                 LISTEN           0                128                                 [::]:22                               [::]:*                                  //设置密码 [root@localhost ~]# cat passwd  ,%//ikYZV3tZ [root@localhost ~]# mysql -uroot -p',%//ikYZV3tZ' mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure. Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g. Your MySQL connection id is 2 Server version: 5.7.38  Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.  Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.  mysql> set password = password('123456'); Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)  //登录查看是否修改成功 [root@localhost ~]# mysql -uroot -p123456 mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure. Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g. Your MySQL connection id is 3 Server version: 5.7.38 MySQL Community Server (GPL)  Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.  Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.  mysql>  

3.3 编译安装php

//下载php软件包 [root@localhost ~]# cd /usr/src/ [root@localhost src]# wget https://www.php.net/distributions/php-7.4.30.tar.gz  //解压软件包 [root@localhost src]# tar xf php-7.4.30.tar.gz  [root@localhost src]# ls debug  kernels  mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz  php-7.4.30  php-7.4.30.tar.gz  //安装依赖包 [root@localhost ~]# yum -y install libxml2 libxml2-devel openssl openssl-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel libcurl libcurl-devel libicu-devel libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel openldap-devel  pcre-devel freetype freetype-devel gmp gmp-devel libmcrypt libmcrypt-devel readline readline-devel libxslt libxslt-devel mhash mhash-devel php-mysqlnd [root@localhost ~]# yum -y install http://mirror.centos.org/centos/8-stream/PowerTools/x86_64/os/Packages/oniguruma-devel-6.8.2-2.el8.x86_64.rpm [root@localhost ~]# dnf -y install libsqlite3x-devel [root@localhost ~]# dnf -y install libzip-devel  //编译安装 [root@localhost ~]# cd /usr/src/ [root@localhost src]# cd php-7.4.30 [root@localhost php-7.4.30]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/php7   --with-config-file-path=/etc  --enable-fpm  --enable-inline-optimization  --disable-debug  --disable-rpath  --enable-shared  --enable-soap  --with-openssl  --enable-bcmath  --with-iconv  --with-bz2  --enable-calendar  --with-curl  --enable-exif   --enable-ftp  --enable-gd  --with-jpeg  --with-zlib-dir  --with-freetype  --with-gettext  --enable-json  --enable-mbstring  --enable-pdo  --with-mysqli=mysqlnd  --with-pdo-mysql=mysqlnd  --with-readline  --enable-shmop  --enable-simplexml  --enable-sockets  --with-zip  --enable-mysqlnd-compression-support  --with-pear  --enable-pcntl  --enable-posix [root@localhost php-7.4.30]# make && make install  //配置环境变量 [root@localhost local]# echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/php7/bin:$PATH' > /etc/profile.d/php.sh [root@localhost local]# source /etc/profile.d/php.sh [root@localhost local]# which php /usr/local/php7/bin/php [root@localhost php-7.4.30]# php -v PHP 7.4.30 (cli) (built: Aug  2 2022 22:27:01) ( NTS ) Copyright (c) The PHP Group Zend Engine v3.4.0, Copyright (c) Zend Technologies  //配置php-fpm [root@localhost php-7.4.30]# cp php.ini-production /etc/php.ini cp: overwrite '/etc/php.ini'? y [root@localhost php-7.4.30]# cd sapi/ [root@localhost sapi]# cd fpm/ [root@localhost fpm]# file init.d.php-fpm init.d.php-fpm: POSIX shell script, ASCII text executable [root@localhost fpm]# cp init.d.php-fpm /etc/init.d/php-fpm [root@localhost fpm]# chmod +x /etc/init.d/php-fpm [root@localhost fpm]# cd /usr/local/php7/ [root@localhost php7]# ls bin  etc  include  lib  php  sbin  var [root@localhost php7]# cd etc/ [root@localhost etc]# cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf [root@localhost etc]# ls pear.conf  php-fpm.conf  php-fpm.conf.default  php-fpm.d [root@localhost etc]# cd php-fpm.d/ [root@localhost php-fpm.d]# ls www.conf.default [root@localhost php-fpm.d]# cp www.conf.default www.conf [root@localhost php-fpm.d]# ls www.conf  www.conf.default  //编辑php-fpm的配置文件(/usr/local/php7/etc/php-fpm.conf): //配置fpm的相关选项为你所需要的值: [root@localhost ~]# vim /usr/local/php7/etc/php-fpm.conf [root@localhost ~]# tail /usr/local/php7/etc/php-fpm.conf ; files from a glob(3) pattern. This directive can be used everywhere in the ; file. ; Relative path can also be used. They will be prefixed by: ;  - the global prefix if it's been set (-p argument) ;  - /usr/local/php7 otherwise include=/usr/local/php7/etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf pm.max_children = 50		//最多同时提供50个进程提供50个并发服务 pm.start_servers = 5		//启动时启动5个进程 pm.min_spare_servers = 2	//最小空闲进程数 pm.max_spare_servers = 8	//最大空闲进程数  //取消httpd.conf的注释,启动httpd的相关模块 [root@localhost php-fpm.d]# vim /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf  #LoadModule proxy_module modules/mod_proxy.so				//取消井号 #LoadModule proxy_fcgi_module modules/mod_proxy_fcgi.so		//取消井号  //编写测试文件 [root@localhost ~]# rm -rf /usr/local/apache/htdocs/index.html  [root@localhost ~]# vim /usr/local/apache/htdocs/index.php [root@localhost ~]# cat /usr/local/apache/htdocs/index.php <?php    phpinfo(); ?> [root@localhost ~]# chown -R apache.apache /usr/local/apache/htdocs/ [root@localhost ~]# ll -d /usr/local/apache/htdocs/ drwxr-xr-x. 3 apache apache 39 Aug  2 22:45 /usr/local/apache/htdocs/  //配置虚拟主机 [root@localhost ~]# vim /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf  //在配置文件的最后加入以下内容 <VirtualHost *:80>     DocumentRoot "/usr/local/apache/htdocs"     ServerName www.zxr.com     ProxyRequests Off     ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*.php)$ fcgi://127.0.0.1:9000/usr/local/apache/htdocs/$1     <Directory "/usr/local/apache/htdocs">         Options none         AllowOverride none         Require all granted     </Directory> </VirtualHost>  [root@localhost ~]# vim /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf  //搜索ADDType,添加以下内容     AddType application/x-compress .Z     AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz     AddType application/x-httpd-php .php				//添加此行     AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps		//添加此行   //启动php httpd [root@localhost local]# service php-fpm start Starting php-fpm  done [root@localhost ~]# service php-fpm --full-restart Gracefully shutting down php-fpm . done Starting php-fpm  done [root@localhost local]# systemctl restart httpd [root@localhost local]# ss -anlt State            Recv-Q           Send-Q                     Local Address:Port                     Peer Address:Port           Process            LISTEN           0                128                            127.0.0.1:9000                          0.0.0.0:*                                 LISTEN           0                128                              0.0.0.0:22                            0.0.0.0:*                                 LISTEN           0                80                                     *:3306                                *:*                                 LISTEN           0                128                                    *:80                                  *:*                                 LISTEN           0                128                                 [::]:22                               [::]:*                                 

3.4 查看结果

搭建lamp架构

编译安装php报错

Package 'sqlite3', required by 'virtual:world', not found //解决方法 [root@localhost ~]# dnf -y install libsqlite3x-devel 
Package 'libzip', required by 'virtual:world', not found //解决方法 [root@localhost ~]# dnf -y install libzip-devel