yum工具的使用

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所属分类:linux技术
摘要

挂载镜像
官方的网络yun仓库在国外
我们可以使用国内的yum仓库:
阿里云yum仓库(https://developer.aliyun.com/mirror/)
epel源
(https://developer.aliyun.com/mirror/)


yum工具的使用


yum仓库管理

1. yum本地仓库

挂载镜像
yum工具的使用

[root@lnh ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# ls CentOS-Stream-AppStream.repo         CentOS-Stream-RealTime.repo CentOS-Stream-BaseOS.repo            epel-modular.repo CentOS-Stream-Debuginfo.repo         epel-playground.repo CentOS-Stream-Extras.repo            epel.repo CentOS-Stream-HighAvailability.repo  epel-testing-modular.repo CentOS-Stream-Media.repo             epel-testing.repo CentOS-Stream-PowerTools.repo [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# rm -rf * [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# ls [root@lnh yum.repos.d]#  //因为我们用的是centos8.5,所以有这些本地仓库,如果是redhat就没有,我们需要删除这些仓库然后进行创建 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# vim xbz.repo [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# ls xbz.repo [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# cat xbz.repo  [BaseOS] name=111 baseurl=file:///mnt/BaseOS gpgcheck=0 enabled=1 [AppStream] name=222 baseurl=file:///mnt/AppStream gpgcheck=0 enabled=1 //配置本地仓库  复制快捷键5yy p [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/ mount: /mnt: /dev/sr0 already mounted on /mnt. //挂载镜像,此处我已经挂载了 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# dnf clean all  13 files removed //清空yum本地缓存,此处用yum也可以但是用dnf可以解决它的一些依赖关系更好一些 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# dnf list all ..... xterm-resize.x86_64            331-1.el8                            AppStream xz-devel.i686                  5.2.4-3.el8                          BaseOS    xz-devel.x86_64                5.2.4-3.el8                          BaseOS    xz-libs.i686                   5.2.4-3.el8                          BaseOS    yajl.i686                      2.1.0-10.el8                         AppStream yajl.x86_64                    2.1.0-10.el8                         AppStream yelp.x86_64                    2:3.28.1-3.el8                       AppStream yelp-libs.i686                 2:3.28.1-3.el8                       AppStream yelp-libs.x86_64               2:3.28.1-3.el8                       AppStream yelp-tools.noarch              3.28.0-3.el8                         AppStream yelp-xsl.noarch                3.28.0-2.el8                         AppStream yp-tools.x86_64                4.2.3-1.el8                          AppStream ypbind.x86_64                  3:2.5-2.el8                          AppStream ypserv.x86_64                  4.0-6.20170331git5bfba76.el8         AppStream yum-utils.noarch               4.0.18-1.el8                         BaseOS  ..... //检验yun本地仓库 

2. yum网络仓库

官方的网络yun仓库在国外
我们可以使用国内的yum仓库:
阿里云yum仓库(https://developer.aliyun.com/mirror/)
epel源
(https://developer.aliyun.com/mirror/)

[root@lnh yum.repos.d]# ls xbz.repo [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# rm -rf * [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# ls [root@lnh yum.repos.d]#  //因为本地仓库和网络仓库不可以共存所以我们先删除本地仓库 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-vault-8.5.2111.repo --2022-07-09 00:59:38--  https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-vault-8.5.2111.repo Resolving mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)... 58.49.248.231, 58.49.248.232, 119.96.204.211, ... Connecting to mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)|58.49.248.231|:443... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 2495 (2.4K) [application/octet-stream] Saving to: ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo’  /etc/yum.repos.d/Ce 100%[================>]   2.44K  --.-KB/s    in 0s        2022-07-09 00:59:38 (25.2 MB/s) - ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo’ saved [2495/2495] //在阿里云里面下载新的 CentOS-Base.repo 到 /etc/yum.repos.d/ [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# yum makecache  CentOS-8.5.2111 - Base - mirrors.aliyun.com   19 MB/s | 4.6 MB     00:00     CentOS-8.5.2111 - Extras - mirrors.aliyun.co  90 kB/s |  10 kB     00:00     CentOS-8.5.2111 - AppStream - mirrors.aliyun  16 MB/s | 8.4 MB     00:00     Metadata cache created. //运行 yum makecache 生成缓存 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo [root@lnh yum.repos.d]#  //非阿里云ECS用户会出现 Couldn't resolve host 'mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com' 信息,不影响使用。用户也可自行修改相关配置 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# ls CentOS-Base.repo //这个就是yum网络仓库 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# dnf list all ... yajl.x86_64                                2.1.0-10.el8             AppStream yelp.x86_64                                2:3.28.1-3.el8           AppStream yelp-libs.i686                             2:3.28.1-3.el8           AppStream yelp-libs.x86_64                           2:3.28.1-3.el8           AppStream yelp-tools.noarch                          3.28.0-3.el8             AppStream yelp-xsl.noarch                            3.28.0-2.el8             AppStream ... //检验一下是否配置成功 

3. yum管理命令

常用的options:
安装,卸载

[root@lnh ~]# dnf -y install vim Last metadata expiration check: 0:07:41 ago on Sat 09 Jul 2022 01:04:12 AM CST. Dependencies resolved. =============================================================================  Package             Arch        Version                Repository      Size ============================================================================= Installing:  vim-enhanced        x86_64      2:8.0.1763-16.el8      AppStream      1.4 M Installing dependencies:  gpm-libs            x86_64      1.20.7-17.el8          AppStream       39 k  vim-common          x86_64      2:8.0.1763-16.el8      AppStream      6.3 M  vim-filesystem      noarch      2:8.0.1763-16.el8      AppStream       49 k  Transaction Summary ============================================================================= Install  4 Packages  Total download size: 7.8 M Installed size: 30 M Downloading Packages: (1/4): gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64.rpm     947 kB/s |  39 kB     00:00     (2/4): vim-filesystem-8.0.1763-16.el8.noarch 2.6 MB/s |  49 kB     00:00     (3/4): vim-enhanced-8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64.r 4.4 MB/s | 1.4 MB     00:00     (4/4): vim-common-8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64.rpm  13 MB/s | 6.3 MB     00:00     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total                                         16 MB/s | 7.8 MB     00:00      Running transaction check Transaction check succeeded. Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded. Running transaction   Preparing        :                                                     1/1    Installing       : vim-filesystem-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.noarch             1/4    Installing       : vim-common-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64                 2/4    Installing       : gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                       3/4    Running scriptlet: gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                       3/4    Installing       : vim-enhanced-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64               4/4    Running scriptlet: vim-enhanced-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64               4/4    Running scriptlet: vim-common-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64                 4/4    Verifying        : gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                       1/4    Verifying        : vim-common-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64                 2/4    Verifying        : vim-enhanced-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64               3/4    Verifying        : vim-filesystem-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.noarch             4/4  Installed products updated.  Installed:   gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                                                 vim-common-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64                                           vim-enhanced-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.x86_64                                         vim-filesystem-2:8.0.1763-16.el8.noarch                                      Complete! //此处install表示安装 -y表示自动回复yes进行安装 [root@lnh ~]# dnf -y remove vim Dependencies resolved. =============================================================================  Package           Arch      Version                     Repository     Size ============================================================================= Removing:  vim-enhanced      x86_64    2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12      @appstream    2.9 M Removing unused dependencies:  gpm-libs          x86_64    1.20.7-17.el8               @appstream     28 k  vim-common        x86_64    2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12      @appstream     27 M  vim-filesystem    noarch    2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12      @appstream     40    Transaction Summary ============================================================================= Remove  4 Packages  Freed space: 30 M Running transaction check Transaction check succeeded. Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded. Running transaction   Preparing        :                                                     1/1    Erasing          : vim-enhanced-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.x86_64          1/4    Erasing          : vim-common-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.x86_64            2/4    Erasing          : vim-filesystem-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.noarch        3/4    Erasing          : gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                       4/4    Running scriptlet: gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                       4/4    Verifying        : gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                       1/4    Verifying        : vim-common-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.x86_64            2/4    Verifying        : vim-enhanced-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.x86_64          3/4    Verifying        : vim-filesystem-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.noarch        4/4  Installed products updated.  Removed:   gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                                                 vim-common-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.x86_64                                      vim-enhanced-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.x86_64                                    vim-filesystem-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.noarch                                 Complete! //remove是卸载的意思 [root@lnh ~]# dnf -y install --nogpgcheck wget Last metadata expiration check: 0:16:54 ago on Sat 09 Jul 2022 01:11:55 AM CST. Dependencies resolved. =============================================================================  Package      Architecture   Version                 Repository         Size ============================================================================= Installing:  wget         x86_64         1.19.5-10.el8           AppStream         734 k  Transaction Summary ============================================================================= Install  1 Package  Total download size: 734 k Installed size: 2.8 M Downloading Packages: wget-1.19.5-10.el8.x86_64.rpm                5.1 MB/s | 734 kB     00:00     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total                                        5.0 MB/s | 734 kB     00:00      Running transaction check Transaction check succeeded. Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded. Running transaction   Preparing        :                                                     1/1    Installing       : wget-1.19.5-10.el8.x86_64                           1/1    Running scriptlet: wget-1.19.5-10.el8.x86_64                           1/1    Verifying        : wget-1.19.5-10.el8.x86_64                           1/1  Installed products updated.  Installed:   wget-1.19.5-10.el8.x86_64                                                    Complete! //不检查合法性进行下载 [root@lnh ~]# dnf -q install wget Is this ok [y/N]: y [root@lnh ~]#  //安装的时候不显示安装信息,一般不推荐使用因为看不出是否安装成功 --disablerepo=repoidglob    //临时禁用此处指定的repo --enablerepo=repoidglob     //临时启用此处指定的repo --noplugins                 //禁用所有插件 

常用的command:

[root@lnh ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# yum list all ... yum-utils.noarch                           4.0.21-3.el8             base      zenity.x86_64                              3.28.1-1.el8             AppStream zlib.i686                                  1.2.11-17.el8            base      zlib-devel.i686                            1.2.11-17.el8            base      zlib-devel.x86_64                          1.2.11-17.el8            base      zsh.x86_64                                 5.5.1-6.el8_1.2          base    ... //列出仓库里面的东西相当于清单 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# dnf list available ... xsane.x86_64                               0.999-30.el8             AppStream xsane-common.x86_64                        0.999-30.el8             AppStream xsane-gimp.x86_64                          0.999-30.el8             AppStream xterm.x86_64                               331-1.el8_3.2            AppStream xterm-resize.x86_64                        331-1.el8_3.2            AppStream xz-devel.i686                              5.2.4-3.el8              base     ... //列出仓库中有的,但尚未安装的所有可用的包 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# dnf list installed  Installed Packages NetworkManager.x86_64              1:1.30.0-0.3.el8                @anaconda  NetworkManager-libnm.x86_64        1:1.30.0-0.3.el8                @anaconda  NetworkManager-team.x86_64         1:1.30.0-0.3.el8                @anaconda  NetworkManager-tui.x86_64          1:1.30.0-0.3.el8                @anaconda  acl.x86_64                         2.2.53-1.el8                    @anaconda  adwaita-cursor-theme.noarch        3.28.0-2.el8                    @anaconda  adwaita-icon-theme.noarch          3.28.0-2.el8                    @anaconda  at-spi2-atk.x86_64                 2.26.2-1.el8                    @anaconda  at-spi2-core.x86_64                2.28.0-1.el8                    @anaconda  atk.x86_64                         2.28.1-1.el8                    @anaconda  audit.x86_64                       3.0-0.17.20191104git1c2f876.el8 @anaconda  audit-libs.x86_64                  3.0-0.17.20191104git1c2f876.el8 @anaconda  authselect.x86_64                  1.2.2-1.el8                     @anaconda  authselect-libs.x86_64             1.2.2-1.el8                     @anaconda ... //列出已经安装的包 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# dnf list updates  Last metadata expiration check: 0:25:44 ago on Sat 09 Jul 2022 01:11:55 AM CST. Available Upgrades NetworkManager.x86_64                  1:1.32.10-4.el8              base      NetworkManager-libnm.x86_64            1:1.32.10-4.el8              base      NetworkManager-team.x86_64             1:1.32.10-4.el8              base      NetworkManager-tui.x86_64              1:1.32.10-4.el8              base      authselect.x86_64                      1.2.2-3.el8                  base      authselect-libs.x86_64                 1.2.2-3.el8                  base      bash.x86_64                            4.4.20-2.el8                 base      bind-export-libs.x86_64                32:9.11.26-6.el8             base      brotli.x86_64                          1.0.6-3.el8                  base      ca-certificates.noarch                 2021.2.50-80.0.el8_4         base      centos-gpg-keys.noarch                 1:8-3.el8                    base      centos-stream-repos.noarch             8-3.el8                      extras    chkconfig.x86_64                       1.19.1-1.el8                 base      coreutils.x86_64                       8.30-12.el8                  base      //列出可升级的包,并且已经指定了可以升级到上面版本 [root@lnh yum.repos.d]# dnf clean packages  0 files removed //清理缓存的包 headers  清理头部文件 metadata 清理元数据 dbcache  清理数据库 [root@lnh ~]# dnf repolist all repo id        repo name                                             status AppStream      CentOS-8.5.2111 - AppStream - mirrors.aliyun.com      enabled PowerTools     CentOS-8.5.2111 - PowerTools - mirrors.aliyun.com     disabled base           CentOS-8.5.2111 - Base - mirrors.aliyun.com           enabled centosplus     CentOS-8.5.2111 - Plus - mirrors.aliyun.com           disabled extras         CentOS-8.5.2111 - Extras - mirrors.aliyun.com         enabled //显示列表的信息 [root@lnh ~]# dnf repolist enabled repo id            repo name AppStream          CentOS-8.5.2111 - AppStream - mirrors.aliyun.com base               CentOS-8.5.2111 - Base - mirrors.aliyun.com extras             CentOS-8.5.2111 - Extras - mirrors.aliyun.com //显示默认是enabled [root@lnh ~]# dnf repolist disabled repo id            repo name PowerTools         CentOS-8.5.2111 - PowerTools - mirrors.aliyun.com centosplus         CentOS-8.5.2111 - Plus - mirrors.aliyun.com //显示禁用的 

升级,查询

[root@lnh ~]# dnf list all |grep curl curl.x86_64                                            7.61.1-17.el8                                          @anaconda  libcurl.x86_64                                         7.61.1-17.el8                                          @anaconda  curl.x86_64                                            7.61.1-22.el8                                          base       libcurl.i686                                           7.61.1-22.el8                                          base       libcurl.x86_64                                         7.61.1-22.el8                                          base       libcurl-devel.i686                                     7.61.1-22.el8                                          base       libcurl-devel.x86_64                                   7.61.1-22.el8                                          base       libcurl-minimal.i686                                   7.61.1-22.el8                                          base       libcurl-minimal.x86_64                                 7.61.1-22.el8                                          base       nbdkit-curl-plugin.x86_64                              1.16.2-4.module_el8.5.0+746+bbd5d70c                   AppStream  python3-pycurl.x86_64                                  7.43.0.2-4.el8                                         AppStream  qemu-kvm-block-curl.x86_64                             15:4.2.0-59.module_el8.5.0+1063+c9b9feff.1             AppStream  //列出curl的包 [root@lnh ~]# dnf list updates  Last metadata expiration check: 0:54:08 ago on Sat 09 Jul 2022 01:11:55 AM CST. Available Upgrades NetworkManager.x86_64                    1:1.32.10-4.el8           base      NetworkManager-libnm.x86_64              1:1.32.10-4.el8           base      NetworkManager-team.x86_64               1:1.32.10-4.el8           base      NetworkManager-tui.x86_64                1:1.32.10-4.el8           base      authselect.x86_64                        1.2.2-3.el8               base      authselect-libs.x86_64                   1.2.2-3.el8               base      bind-export-libs.x86_64                  32:9.11.26-6.el8          base      ca-certificates.noarch                   2021.2.50-80.0.el8_4      base      centos-gpg-keys.noarch                   1:8-3.el8                 base      ... //列出可升级的包 [root@lnh ~]# dnf list all | grep man-db man-db.x86_64                                          2.7.6.1-17.el8                                         @anaconda  man-db.x86_64                                          2.7.6.1-18.el8                                         base       man-db-cron.noarch                                     2.7.6.1-18.el8                                         base       //列出man-db的包 [root@lnh ~]# dnf -y update man-db Last metadata expiration check: 1:01:31 ago on Sat 09 Jul 2022 01:11:55 AM CST. Dependencies resolved. ============================================================================  Package        Architecture   Version                   Repository    Size ============================================================================ Upgrading:  man-db         x86_64         2.7.6.1-18.el8            base         887 k  Transaction Summary ============================================================================ Upgrade  1 Package  Total size: 887 k Downloading Packages: [SKIPPED] man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.x86_64.rpm: Already downloaded              Running transaction check Transaction check succeeded. Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded. Running transaction   Preparing        :                                                    1/1    Running scriptlet: man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.x86_64                       1/1    Running scriptlet: man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.x86_64                       1/2    Upgrading        : man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.x86_64                       1/2    Running scriptlet: man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.x86_64                       1/2    Cleanup          : man-db-2.7.6.1-17.el8.x86_64                       2/2    Running scriptlet: man-db-2.7.6.1-17.el8.x86_64                       2/2    Running scriptlet: man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.x86_64                       2/2    Verifying        : man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.x86_64                       1/2    Verifying        : man-db-2.7.6.1-17.el8.x86_64                       2/2  Installed products updated.  Upgraded:   man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.x86_64                                                Complete! //对其进行升级 [root@lnh ~]# dnf info man-db Last metadata expiration check: 1:03:01 ago on Sat 09 Jul 2022 01:11:55 AM CST. Installed Packages Name         : man-db Version      : 2.7.6.1 Release      : 18.el8 Architecture : x86_64 Size         : 1.9 M Source       : man-db-2.7.6.1-18.el8.src.rpm Repository   : @System From repo    : base Summary      : Tools for searching and reading man pages URL          : http://www.nongnu.org/man-db/ License      : GPLv2+ and GPLv3+ Description  : The man-db package includes five tools for browsing              : man-pages: man, whatis, apropos, manpath and lexgrog. man              : formats and displays manual pages. whatis searches the manual              : page names. apropos searches the manual page names and              : descriptions. manpath determines search path for manual              : pages. lexgrog directly reads header information in manual              : pages.  //列出软件包的信息相当于rpm包里面的用rpm -qi 包查看信息 

与历史记录相关的命令

[root@lnh ~]# dnf history  ID     | Command line             | Date and time    | Action(s)      | Altered -------------------------------------------------------------------------------     21 | -y update man-db         | 2022-07-09 02:13 | Upgrade        |    1  <     20 | update                   | 2022-07-09 01:53 | I, U           |  261 >#     19 | -q install wget          | 2022-07-09 01:30 | Install        |    1        18 | -y remove wget           | 2022-07-09 01:29 | Removed        |    1        17 | -y install --nogpgcheck  | 2022-07-09 01:28 | Install        |    1        16 | -y remove wget           | 2022-07-09 01:28 | Removed        |    1        15 | -y install vim           | 2022-07-09 01:11 | Install        |    4        14 | -y remove vim            | 2022-07-09 01:10 | Removed        |    4  <     13 | -y install sudo          | 2022-07-04 15:36 | Upgrade        |    1 >      12 | -y install iotop         | 2022-07-04 05:35 | Install        |    1        11 | -y install htop          | 2022-07-04 04:57 | Install        |    1        10 | -y install psmisc        | 2022-07-03 22:03 | Install        |    1         9 | -y install tar           | 2022-06-30 08:58 | Install        |    1         8 | -y install zip           | 2022-06-30 04:45 | Install        |    1         7 | -y install unzip         | 2022-06-30 02:17 | Install        |    1         6 | -y install bzip2         | 2022-06-30 02:15 | Install        |    1         5 | -y install tree          | 2022-06-28 04:31 | Install        |    1         4 | -y install bash-completi | 2022-06-27 22:10 | Install        |    5         3 | -y install epel-release  | 2022-06-27 22:09 | Install        |    1         2 | -y install vim           | 2022-06-27 21:17 | Install        |    4         1 |                          | 2022-06-27 21:06 | Install        |  425 EE //最后一个空白处表示我们刚刚安装系统时的 其他的但是系统安装好后用下载命令进行下载安装包的记录 [root@lnh ~]# dnf history info   2 Transaction ID : 2 Begin time     : Mon 27 Jun 2022 09:17:23 PM CST Begin rpmdb    : 423:cac03573ad9f7d066e36879b5909fe1b1f0fff31 End time       : Mon 27 Jun 2022 09:17:28 PM CST (5 seconds) End rpmdb      : 427:8e6c64e107fb4b38d247b4e55187de6b5ea05370 User           : root <root> Return-Code    : Success Releasever     : 8 Command Line   : -y install vim Comment        :  Packages Altered:     Install gpm-libs-1.20.7-17.el8.x86_64                @appstream     Install vim-common-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.x86_64     @appstream     Install vim-enhanced-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.x86_64   @appstream     Install vim-filesystem-2:8.0.1763-16.el8_5.12.noarch @appstream //查询历史执行yum命令2的详细信息 [root@lnh ~]# dnf history undo 20 //撤销历史执行过yum命令里面第20个